"The backs of the few rods which might give the remaining thirteen or fourteen fingers of the back complete have not been reproduced. The four fragments of these fingers which we know show that some of the spaces were inscribed with numbers or measurements of astronomical proportions-at least to the ancient Egyptian-such as "a million cubits," "one million five hundred thousand cubits," with divisions of the hk3t measure, and with other apparently unrelated matters.
Only one rod, as far as we can tell, has an inscription on the end. This states that the cubit is "Life, Prosperity, and Health"-another indication of the deification of the measurement. The base is divided into three horizontal registers, each filled with an inscription. The texts of these three lines are very corrupt. They must have been copied by scribes who understood them no better than we do.
The second line evidently contains the clue to the meaning of the other two. It seems to begin, "This is a communication for those who enter daily (?) into Mendes," and continues, "As Khnum lives, as the sun goes down and that which is in heaven arises. ..." Then come the name and titles of the reigning king; the line ends, "An instruction for those who are in this temple ... [in] the writing of Thot, ... daily." It is probably the reference to the sun and "that which is in heaven" which links this register to the others, and to the measurements under the nome-signs.
The topmost register is divided into two parts. The first begins, "The hour according to the cubit," and apparently continues, "A st3 jar of copper filled with water." It then goes on to give quantities according to the divisions of the hk3t measure-the ancient Egyptian way of computing volume. This, one would guess, has to do with the reading of a water clock, although the instructions do not suggest to us just how this was to be done. The rest of the line-measurements in cubits and palms listed according to the months of the year has been interpreted by Borchardt as possibly a table by which readings of a sun- dial might be interpreted.
He suggests that the rod itself, placed vertically, was used as the gnomon, and that the length of its own shadow was measured. A number of points are not covered by this explanation, among them the fact that the readings are evidently to be taken three times a night. On the other hand, it is hard to imagine any lunar or sidereal movements which would be better suited to the measurements given on this table. The bottom line, which commences with a reference to the inundation, consists of another series of measurements, this time in relation to certain towns. The measurements are given in cubits, palms, and fingers, and in itrw, a measure of about 4,000 cubits, roughly two kilometers, corresponding to the Greek schoinos."
Measures in the million and 1.5 million...different sizes of measures on the rods...and our circle having 1.296 million arc-seconds to it. The last bit of this quote and its ‘about 4,000’ cubits tells the size of a circle as seen from the point of view of an observer taking readings of the stars and sun. From ground level, a person can see the rim of the horizon some 3 mile away, but a curious thing happens with this ‘about 4000’ cubits.
A little math-play might offer up a specific number:
The number of beams above the King’s Chamber multiplied together = 46,656
46,656 x square-root pi = 82,695.6….
82,695.6…. / RC (for this purpose, RC = (1/5 x 360) – (1/7 x 360) but certainly an accepted measure of 20.62” or even 20.618” can be used...they come close to the same amount of what ‘itrw’ is.
82,695.6… / RC = aprx 4,020 cubits
(using RC of 20.62” = aprx. 4,010.5 cubits)
Having a specific measure for the radius or diameter of the circle surrounding the observer means the rod/s can be used to measure the stars, and as there are differing measures upon the rod/s, differing measures away from the observer mean which side of the rod is used. At arm’s length, we can imagine the first measure on the rod is used; at the edge of the circle, the third measure is used; half way between observer and circle-edge has the second measure on the rod used.
In judging the location of a star according to the horizon, the rod is held vertically and the star is positioned next to the rod and its reading recorded. Then there is which cardinal direction to record the position from, and the ‘imperishable stars’ can certainly show the northern circumpolar point and the alignment of due north from which to record the horizontal measure of where a star is. Due south can also show where the alignment is and also give the horizontal measure. Then there are the Decans and their own positions of measure from which to measure other stars from.
There are two universal measures on the rod/s that work anywhere, and the third measure according to the ‘nome’ is specific to the latitude of the location, and all three measures provide specifics of exacting astronomical readings that are translated on the one hand to temple construction, and on the other hand to record a very specific moment in time according to the length of Precession of the Equinoxes. In a cycle of Precession, it is possible to record two instances of where a star is in its movement up and down as Precession cycles through its apparent motion according to an observer watching the rise and fall of stars against the horizon.
Sirius is determined to be the most important star for all kinds of cultures, and it can be seen to be just a couple of degrees above the horizon when it is at its lowest position in Precession as seen from the location of Giza. One time period this occurred in was about 11,875 BCE; a whole Precession-cycle earlier and it is nearly at the same height above the horizon but our obliquity kind of shows Sirius to be a little different. Earth has two cycles playing out in celestial observations: one of about 26,000 years; the other of about 41,000 years. If we were to identify Sirius at a specific location, we would know which epoch was being given.
At the other end of Precession, Sirius will be nearly 44 1/3 degrees above the horizon in about 627CE...these year-dates according to the astronomy program Stellarium. If these two dates can be shown to have been recorded in any ancient construction in some way, we can be definite that the ancients had the ability to not only measure the stars but to do so over at least two Precession cycles...and be certain enough about their knowledge to build something to accommodate such recordings.
If all we have to resort to in assessing these things are the rods and ancient constructions, then it is my contention that Khufu’s Pyramid does show a plan using Sirius to show the floor of the Queen’s Chamber and the half-height of the pyramid according to the cycle of Precession, and also Canopus appearing above the horizon at its highest position at the turning point of Precession. In about 627 – 643CE, Canopus reaches about 7 ½ degrees above the horizon. In the Queen’s chamber, the niche records the various heights Canopus has risen to, but this last cycle had Canopus in the top-most course of blocks in the chamber, below the peaked roof...it was completely out of the niche but the peaked roof accounted for it...keeping the star contained within the chamber.
The half-height of the pyramid identifies Sirius exactly; the Queen’s Chamber identifies Sirius and Canopus with a modification in-built.
The Ancient Egyptians could not have built Khufu’s Pyramid based upon just a few hundred or thousand years worth of astronomical observations but the recordings of many many thousands of years of observations. But we know the Ancient Egyptians couldn’t possibly be that old. They have a specific tool in the form of the rods to measure the stars from, and the pyramid itself as a model of Precession and stars and the Sun. The Sun on the winter solstice at noon references the newly discovered void in the pyramid; the sun on the summer solstice at dawn references the height of the pyramid. These observations are produced and defined within the analysis Opus Mundialis Rostau, published on-line at Weebly.com in early 2014.
I do believe we have the verification of an ancient civilization passed down to us in the form of Khufu’s Pyramid. Where the information came from is thus far the most elusive piece of mankind’s history that won’t reveal itself.