The Orientations of the Giza pyramids and associated structures
Erin Nell and Clive Ruggles
The alignment of the causeways of Khufu and Khafre, although not that of Menkaure, differ greatly from
all other monuments on the Giza Plateau, and may offer some useful insights as a result. Khafre’s
causeway, as already discussed, is oriented with a DFC of between +13° and 14°, while that of Khufu is
around –14° to –15° (Lauer 1947: 246; Goyon 1969; Lehner 1985b: 118–119).
This means that the azimuth of the Khufu pyramid causeway is roughly 75.5 degrees.