Mysteries :  The Official GrahamHancock.com forums
For serious discussion of the controversies, approaches and enigmas surrounding the origins and development of the human species and of human civilization. (NB: for more ‘out there’ posts we point you in the direction of the ‘Paranormal & Supernatural’ Message Board). 
Welcome! Log InRegister
Thanos5150 Wrote:
-------------------------------------------------------

> My understanding is that they did not have such a
> thing as a "league" but the translation was
> offered as a placeholder using the English word of
> what they thought was the nearest equivalent.
> (Added-the idea of it being less than a mile was
> my own math extrapolating from the cord which the
> source said the Babylonian equivalent of a
> "league" was 30 cord, but this could be wrong).

I thought you might have some info.

>
Quote

The word beru, translated by Heidel as
> double-hour and by Speiser as league is a very
> curious one. It seems to be formed from a
> subsidiary stem of the verb root beru, whose basic
> meaning is to starve or to be hungry. From this
> basic meaning the subsidiary stem in question
> developed its meaning to persevere, to hold out,
> in other words, to hold out against starvation. In
> actual usage, the meaning was extended and the
> word came to mean to endure without interruption,
> and to continue to last. The word was used
> specifically in astronomy to describe stars and
> plnets which continued to be visible and had not
> gone below the horizon. From this verb, a noun was
> constructed with the meaning duration, although it
> was generally in the form biritu. A related
> preposition meant between, since what was endured
> between constituted an interval.
> This noun also had a highly specific astronomical
> usage, meaning the angle of elongation of a star
> or planet. That means the angular distance from
> the sun. (In the case of Mercury, this never
> exceeds 28 degrees, which is just under 1/3 of a
> right angle, and may possibly relate to the thirds
> which were discussed above in note 11.) The
> central celestial sky band of An had an angular
> width of between 30 and 34 degrees, since An was
> identified with the number 60, it would seem that
> the degrees of his sky band were double-degrees,
> to yield this number. Perhaps the idea of a
> double-hour is similarly a normal hour counted
> double. Heidel does not explain why he has chosen
> to translate beru as double-hour. I have retained
> this translation but warn that the word really
> means 'variable interval', when Gilgamesh's
> journey below the horizon is described, referring
> to the 12 unequal hours, two of which are the
> period of dawn.
> F. Rochberg-Hlaton, in an article on stellar
> distances in Babylonian astronomy stressed that
> the beru was: 'a unit of measure having three
> possible dimensions: length, time, or the
> measurement of an arc. As a unit of length, beru
> is customarily translated as mile (it is actually
> something over 10km), and as a unit of time it is
> equal to 30 ush (ush being the fundamental
> Babylonian unit for the measurement of both time
> and of arcs, equivalent to four minutes), hence
> 120 minutes or a double- hour. In the measurement
> of an arc, the beru refers to the 12th part of a
> circle, against 30 ush or 30 degrees, and serves
> as an astronomical unit, but only in the late
> mathematical astronomy.' Beru occurs so frequently
> in the Epic of Gilgamesh that it has been
> necessary to give a fair amount of information
> about it. The cosmic journey throughout the Epic,
> and the number of berus traversed on each
> occasion, are of great significance for working
> out what is actually being described. I have opted
> largely to use the translation double-hour, and
> occasionally leagues. But precisely what is going
> on in all instances is by no means clear.

That is really interesting, makes everything as clear as mud. It's rarely as simple as we want to think. Whatever author you quoted sounds to be very thorough and obviously you haven't given Gilgamesh just a passing glance, you've put some time into researching it.

> So, if a beru is equivalent to 2hrs of walking
> then it would take 5 days to traverse this forest
> in either direction and 10 days to get from one
> end to the other. A forest of truly mythical
> proportions.

10 days with ideal conditions, as the saying goes; god willin' and the crik don't rise. For those like me who need visuals, about the same time to walk the length of the Grand Canyon. All those objections and calculations about the impossible size of the forest were kind of a waste of time. Often it's better to keep the mouth shut and do a little research first, or just ask.

I wanted an idea of what a cedar forest would like that would create such a stir in the ancients, found this nice video of a forest up tbird's way. I didn't realize they were giant trees but I don't know if these are the same as the Lebanese cedar. In any case, a forest stretching for miles would have been an intimidating area, wouldn't want to get lost in it. Having been in the Redwoods I can understand the sense of reverence one can feel in a forest of giant trees.

He who knows all the answers has not been asked all the questions - Confucius

Options: ReplyQuote


Subject Views Written By Posted
Case for an Older Baalbek 2631 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 06:04
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 431 MDaines 11-Apr-18 08:28
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 367 Origyptian 11-Apr-18 11:15
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 344 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 22:34
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 327 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 13:25
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 318 MDaines 12-Apr-18 13:39
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 290 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 22:47
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 308 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 22:31
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 291 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 13:01
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 324 MDaines 12-Apr-18 13:25
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 297 Audrey 12-Apr-18 17:49
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 285 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 22:36
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 289 Audrey 12-Apr-18 23:08
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 275 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 01:44
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 295 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 03:07
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 263 Eddie Larry 13-Apr-18 03:26
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 273 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 04:00
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 305 Audrey 13-Apr-18 03:16
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 280 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 04:18
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 364 Barbelo 11-Apr-18 11:41
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 300 Thunderbird 11-Apr-18 15:02
Re: Case for no King Solomon 333 Thunderbird 11-Apr-18 15:19
Re: Case for no King Solomon 306 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 22:51
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 346 Audrey 11-Apr-18 16:42
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 295 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 23:11
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 310 Eddie Larry 11-Apr-18 20:40
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 294 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 22:18
How Big Was The Forest? 300 Barbelo 11-Apr-18 23:25
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 309 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 13:58
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 307 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 16:18
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 294 MDaines 12-Apr-18 16:54
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 274 Audrey 13-Apr-18 03:29
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 304 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 15:20
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 299 Audrey 14-Apr-18 01:57
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 336 Eddie Larry 14-Apr-18 04:12
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 285 Barbelo 14-Apr-18 10:25
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 287 Eddie Larry 14-Apr-18 15:54
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 238 Barbelo 14-Apr-18 22:13
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 259 Eddie Larry 14-Apr-18 22:45
Re: Beer bottles Fly......Duck! 269 Thunderbird 14-Apr-18 22:26
Re: Beer bottles Fly......Duck! 260 Eddie Larry 14-Apr-18 22:37
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 258 Thanos5150 15-Apr-18 02:49
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 266 Eddie Larry 15-Apr-18 02:56
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 287 Thanos5150 15-Apr-18 03:36
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 273 Eddie Larry 15-Apr-18 04:21
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 307 Barbelo 15-Apr-18 05:45
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 258 Eddie Larry 15-Apr-18 14:00
Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 298 MDaines 16-Apr-18 07:41
Re: Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 262 Thunderbird 16-Apr-18 12:59
Re: Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 317 MDaines 16-Apr-18 13:30
Re: Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 287 Thanos5150 16-Apr-18 19:39
Re: Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 298 MDaines 17-Apr-18 07:40
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 262 Thanos5150 14-Apr-18 14:43
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 304 Mike D 20-Apr-18 13:15
Re: Did the Russians visit Baalbek? 258 Thunderbird 20-Apr-18 13:56
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 254 Thanos5150 20-Apr-18 16:00
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 268 Eddie Larry 20-Apr-18 16:09
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 270 Thanos5150 20-Apr-18 17:00
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 258 Eddie Larry 20-Apr-18 17:11
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 282 Barbelo 20-Apr-18 20:47
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 261 Origyptian 20-Apr-18 21:45
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 372 Barbelo 20-Apr-18 22:57
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 274 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 00:53
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 266 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 03:56
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 290 Corpuscles 12-Apr-18 00:34
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 289 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 01:39
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 288 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 03:52
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 271 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 04:36
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 284 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 14:12
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 279 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 14:44
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 239 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 17:01
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 313 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 00:47
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 220 Eddie Larry 13-Apr-18 03:40
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 309 Audrey 13-Apr-18 05:44
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 274 Thanos5150 14-Apr-18 01:32
Re: Baalbek.....Home of the God's 269 Thunderbird 13-Apr-18 15:14
Re: Baalbek.....Home of the God's 276 Audrey 14-Apr-18 02:30
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 273 Audrey 12-Apr-18 19:42
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 249 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 20:43
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 263 Audrey 12-Apr-18 16:56
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 283 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 17:08
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 264 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 21:42
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 246 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 22:41
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 263 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 22:58
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 238 Eddie Larry 13-Apr-18 17:52
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 257 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 19:06
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 261 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 21:08
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 291 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 21:37
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 266 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 22:06
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 267 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 22:41
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 292 Origyptian 14-Apr-18 15:14
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 261 Jon Ellison 14-Apr-18 22:20
Re: For God's sakes Lee!... 266 Thunderbird 16-Apr-18 00:15
Some Give A Shit 322 Barbelo 12-Apr-18 05:11
Re: Some Give A Shit 314 MDaines 12-Apr-18 07:48
Re: Some Give A Shit 279 Audrey 12-Apr-18 20:42
Re: Some Give A Shit 294 Barbelo 12-Apr-18 21:43
Re: Some Give A Shit 271 Audrey 12-Apr-18 23:21
Re: Some Give A Shit 262 Barbelo 13-Apr-18 00:44
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 302 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 15:03
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 291 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 17:11
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 312 MDaines 12-Apr-18 17:55
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 268 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 22:18
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 283 Thunderbird 12-Apr-18 22:53
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 258 Audrey 13-Apr-18 00:28
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 306 Thunderbird 13-Apr-18 03:31
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 271 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 04:46
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 317 Race Jackson 12-Apr-18 22:54
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 327 MDaines 13-Apr-18 08:20
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 304 Audrey 14-Apr-18 00:40
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 336 MDaines 14-Apr-18 08:04
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 311 Manu 13-Apr-18 18:10
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 268 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 19:28
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 279 Manu 13-Apr-18 19:50
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 285 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 20:53
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 276 Manu 13-Apr-18 21:31
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 273 Barbelo 13-Apr-18 20:26
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 111 Thanos5150 14-Sep-19 15:17
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 129 Eddie Larry 14-Sep-19 15:50
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 174 engbren 17-Sep-19 03:13


Sorry, only registered users may post in this forum.