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Thanos5150 Wrote:
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> My understanding is that they did not have such a
> thing as a "league" but the translation was
> offered as a placeholder using the English word of
> what they thought was the nearest equivalent.
> (Added-the idea of it being less than a mile was
> my own math extrapolating from the cord which the
> source said the Babylonian equivalent of a
> "league" was 30 cord, but this could be wrong).

I thought you might have some info.

>
Quote

The word beru, translated by Heidel as
> double-hour and by Speiser as league is a very
> curious one. It seems to be formed from a
> subsidiary stem of the verb root beru, whose basic
> meaning is to starve or to be hungry. From this
> basic meaning the subsidiary stem in question
> developed its meaning to persevere, to hold out,
> in other words, to hold out against starvation. In
> actual usage, the meaning was extended and the
> word came to mean to endure without interruption,
> and to continue to last. The word was used
> specifically in astronomy to describe stars and
> plnets which continued to be visible and had not
> gone below the horizon. From this verb, a noun was
> constructed with the meaning duration, although it
> was generally in the form biritu. A related
> preposition meant between, since what was endured
> between constituted an interval.
> This noun also had a highly specific astronomical
> usage, meaning the angle of elongation of a star
> or planet. That means the angular distance from
> the sun. (In the case of Mercury, this never
> exceeds 28 degrees, which is just under 1/3 of a
> right angle, and may possibly relate to the thirds
> which were discussed above in note 11.) The
> central celestial sky band of An had an angular
> width of between 30 and 34 degrees, since An was
> identified with the number 60, it would seem that
> the degrees of his sky band were double-degrees,
> to yield this number. Perhaps the idea of a
> double-hour is similarly a normal hour counted
> double. Heidel does not explain why he has chosen
> to translate beru as double-hour. I have retained
> this translation but warn that the word really
> means 'variable interval', when Gilgamesh's
> journey below the horizon is described, referring
> to the 12 unequal hours, two of which are the
> period of dawn.
> F. Rochberg-Hlaton, in an article on stellar
> distances in Babylonian astronomy stressed that
> the beru was: 'a unit of measure having three
> possible dimensions: length, time, or the
> measurement of an arc. As a unit of length, beru
> is customarily translated as mile (it is actually
> something over 10km), and as a unit of time it is
> equal to 30 ush (ush being the fundamental
> Babylonian unit for the measurement of both time
> and of arcs, equivalent to four minutes), hence
> 120 minutes or a double- hour. In the measurement
> of an arc, the beru refers to the 12th part of a
> circle, against 30 ush or 30 degrees, and serves
> as an astronomical unit, but only in the late
> mathematical astronomy.' Beru occurs so frequently
> in the Epic of Gilgamesh that it has been
> necessary to give a fair amount of information
> about it. The cosmic journey throughout the Epic,
> and the number of berus traversed on each
> occasion, are of great significance for working
> out what is actually being described. I have opted
> largely to use the translation double-hour, and
> occasionally leagues. But precisely what is going
> on in all instances is by no means clear.

That is really interesting, makes everything as clear as mud. It's rarely as simple as we want to think. Whatever author you quoted sounds to be very thorough and obviously you haven't given Gilgamesh just a passing glance, you've put some time into researching it.

> So, if a beru is equivalent to 2hrs of walking
> then it would take 5 days to traverse this forest
> in either direction and 10 days to get from one
> end to the other. A forest of truly mythical
> proportions.

10 days with ideal conditions, as the saying goes; god willin' and the crik don't rise. For those like me who need visuals, about the same time to walk the length of the Grand Canyon. All those objections and calculations about the impossible size of the forest were kind of a waste of time. Often it's better to keep the mouth shut and do a little research first, or just ask.

I wanted an idea of what a cedar forest would like that would create such a stir in the ancients, found this nice video of a forest up tbird's way. I didn't realize they were giant trees but I don't know if these are the same as the Lebanese cedar. In any case, a forest stretching for miles would have been an intimidating area, wouldn't want to get lost in it. Having been in the Redwoods I can understand the sense of reverence one can feel in a forest of giant trees.

He who knows all the answers has not been asked all the questions - Confucius

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Subject Views Written By Posted
Case for an Older Baalbek 1662 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 06:04
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 262 MDaines 11-Apr-18 08:28
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 210 Origyptian 11-Apr-18 11:15
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 197 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 22:34
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 174 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 13:25
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 168 MDaines 12-Apr-18 13:39
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 159 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 22:47
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 178 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 22:31
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 146 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 13:01
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 170 MDaines 12-Apr-18 13:25
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 162 Audrey 12-Apr-18 17:49
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 148 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 22:36
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 164 Audrey 12-Apr-18 23:08
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 145 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 01:44
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 164 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 03:07
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 142 Eddie Larry 13-Apr-18 03:26
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 148 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 04:00
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 183 Audrey 13-Apr-18 03:16
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 146 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 04:18
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 213 Barbelo 11-Apr-18 11:41
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 173 Thunderbird 11-Apr-18 15:02
Re: Case for no King Solomon 195 Thunderbird 11-Apr-18 15:19
Re: Case for no King Solomon 178 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 22:51
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 205 Audrey 11-Apr-18 16:42
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 158 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 23:11
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 178 Eddie Larry 11-Apr-18 20:40
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 181 Thanos5150 11-Apr-18 22:18
How Big Was The Forest? 171 Barbelo 11-Apr-18 23:25
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 164 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 13:58
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 158 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 16:18
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 170 MDaines 12-Apr-18 16:54
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 157 Audrey 13-Apr-18 03:29
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 171 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 15:20
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 180 Audrey 14-Apr-18 01:57
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 197 Eddie Larry 14-Apr-18 04:12
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 167 Barbelo 14-Apr-18 10:25
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 158 Eddie Larry 14-Apr-18 15:54
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 119 Barbelo 14-Apr-18 22:13
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 145 Eddie Larry 14-Apr-18 22:45
Re: Beer bottles Fly......Duck! 148 Thunderbird 14-Apr-18 22:26
Re: Beer bottles Fly......Duck! 145 Eddie Larry 14-Apr-18 22:37
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 133 Thanos5150 15-Apr-18 02:49
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 141 Eddie Larry 15-Apr-18 02:56
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 161 Thanos5150 15-Apr-18 03:36
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 132 Eddie Larry 15-Apr-18 04:21
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 161 Barbelo 15-Apr-18 05:45
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 124 Eddie Larry 15-Apr-18 14:00
Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 161 MDaines 16-Apr-18 07:41
Re: Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 129 Thunderbird 16-Apr-18 12:59
Re: Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 174 MDaines 16-Apr-18 13:30
Re: Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 156 Thanos5150 16-Apr-18 19:39
Re: Zagros, Shoulder of the Cosmic Matriarch 163 MDaines 17-Apr-18 07:40
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 147 Thanos5150 14-Apr-18 14:43
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 157 Mike D 20-Apr-18 13:15
Re: Did the Russians visit Baalbek? 135 Thunderbird 20-Apr-18 13:56
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 141 Thanos5150 20-Apr-18 16:00
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 150 Eddie Larry 20-Apr-18 16:09
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 141 Thanos5150 20-Apr-18 17:00
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 141 Eddie Larry 20-Apr-18 17:11
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 152 Barbelo 20-Apr-18 20:47
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 138 Origyptian 20-Apr-18 21:45
Re: How Big Was The Forest? 229 Barbelo 20-Apr-18 22:57
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 155 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 00:53
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 152 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 03:56
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 162 Corpuscles 12-Apr-18 00:34
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 184 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 01:39
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 165 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 03:52
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 145 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 04:36
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 160 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 14:12
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 155 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 14:44
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 124 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 17:01
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 174 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 00:47
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 119 Eddie Larry 13-Apr-18 03:40
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 173 Audrey 13-Apr-18 05:44
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 146 Thanos5150 14-Apr-18 01:32
Re: Baalbek.....Home of the God's 162 Thunderbird 13-Apr-18 15:14
Re: Baalbek.....Home of the God's 150 Audrey 14-Apr-18 02:30
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 142 Audrey 12-Apr-18 19:42
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 132 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 20:43
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 149 Audrey 12-Apr-18 16:56
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 147 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 17:08
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 154 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 21:42
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 132 Eddie Larry 12-Apr-18 22:41
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 142 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 22:58
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 133 Eddie Larry 13-Apr-18 17:52
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 144 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 19:06
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 129 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 21:08
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 154 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 21:37
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 139 Origyptian 13-Apr-18 22:06
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 152 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 22:41
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 149 Origyptian 14-Apr-18 15:14
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 135 Jon Ellison 14-Apr-18 22:20
Re: For God's sakes Lee!... 148 Thunderbird 16-Apr-18 00:15
Some Give A Shit 191 Barbelo 12-Apr-18 05:11
Re: Some Give A Shit 191 MDaines 12-Apr-18 07:48
Re: Some Give A Shit 166 Audrey 12-Apr-18 20:42
Re: Some Give A Shit 156 Barbelo 12-Apr-18 21:43
Re: Some Give A Shit 151 Audrey 12-Apr-18 23:21
Re: Some Give A Shit 135 Barbelo 13-Apr-18 00:44
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 149 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 15:03
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 152 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 17:11
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 185 MDaines 12-Apr-18 17:55
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 153 Origyptian 12-Apr-18 22:18
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 158 Thunderbird 12-Apr-18 22:53
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 146 Audrey 13-Apr-18 00:28
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 183 Thunderbird 13-Apr-18 03:31
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 151 Thanos5150 12-Apr-18 04:46
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 194 Race Jackson 12-Apr-18 22:54
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 188 MDaines 13-Apr-18 08:20
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 177 Audrey 14-Apr-18 00:40
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 216 MDaines 14-Apr-18 08:04
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 176 Manu 13-Apr-18 18:10
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 145 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 19:28
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 163 Manu 13-Apr-18 19:50
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 149 Thanos5150 13-Apr-18 20:53
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 159 Manu 13-Apr-18 21:31
Re: Case for an Older Baalbek 160 Barbelo 13-Apr-18 20:26


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