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Consider:

nfr and was-scepter
from Campbell’s Chamber after J. S. Perring 1837


”In the following reign of Khufu, the gang seems to have been the most important unit of organization. The texts inscribed on the walls of the relieving chambers of the Great Pyramid name three gangs, each based on a different form of the king’s name. Seven blocks give a gang name based on his Horus name, Ḥr-Mḏdw; ten give a name based on the full form of his nswt-bjtj name, Khnum-Khufu; and two blocks give a name based on the abbreviated form of that name, Khufu. A few of these texts may contain traces of a phyle name followed by a division mark, but the signs and , which occur frequently, cannot be division marks, as they occur with more than one gang. They probably indicate the orientation of the blocks or some other aid to construction.Egyptian Phyles in the Old Kingdom The Evolution of a System of Social Organization, Ann Macy Roth.

”The same nfr symbol appears in a series of drawings of some Old Kingdom constructions. For example, in the construction of Meidun [sic] Pyramid, it appears as a ground reference point for integral values of cubits given as “above zero” (going up) and “below zero” (going down). There are other examples of these number lines at pyramid sites, known and referred to by Egyptologists early in the century, including Borchardt, Petrie, and Reiner, but not mentioned by historians of mathematics, not even Gillings (1972), who played such an important role in revealing the treasures of Egyptian mathematics to a wider public. About fifteen hundred years after Ahmes, in a deed from Edfu, there is a use of the “zero concept as a replacement to a magnitude in geometry,” according to Boyer (1968, p. 18). Perhaps there are other examples waiting to be found in Egypt…The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics, George Gheverghese Joseph.

”In building construction, horizontal leveling lines were used to guide the construction of pyramids and other large structures. These massive stone structures required deep foundations and careful leveling of the courses of stones. One of these leveling lines was used as reference for other levels, and was labeled "nfr," or "zero." Other horizontal leveling lines were spaced 1 cubit apart and labeled as "1 cubit above nfr," "2 cubits above nfr," or 1 cubit, 2 cubits, etc. below nfr. Thus, zero, in this case, was used as a reference for a system of directed or signed numbers. A number of these examples are still visible - on the Great Pyramid of Giza in 1931.”MATHEMATICIANS OF THE AFRICAN DIASPORA, Dr. Scott W. Williams, The Mathematics Department of The State University of New York at Buffalo.

At a minimum the nfr numbers (and likely the was-scepter number) are referenced from a datum point employed in locating the placement of these certain stones.



Dr. Troglodyte


“Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?“ - Decimus Junius Juvenalis


“Numero, Pondere et Mensura“


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Subject Views Written By Posted
The Zeroth Ordinal 1191 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 00:18
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 237 Corpuscles 16-Feb-18 01:20
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 178 kborissov 16-Feb-18 02:37
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 220 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 02:59
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 218 sfbey 16-Feb-18 03:34
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 232 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 16:54
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 216 sfbey 16-Feb-18 18:07
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 235 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 18:59
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 199 sfbey 16-Feb-18 19:14
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 222 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 19:37
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 187 sfbey 16-Feb-18 19:55
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 185 cladking 16-Feb-18 20:00
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 213 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:08
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 204 Morten 16-Feb-18 20:13
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 203 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:15
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 216 sfbey 16-Feb-18 20:18
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 204 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:22
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 177 sfbey 16-Feb-18 20:29
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 204 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:34
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 189 sfbey 16-Feb-18 20:44
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 180 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:50
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 195 Martin Stower 16-Feb-18 22:51
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 199 Martin Stower 16-Feb-18 20:40
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 202 gulsbo 18-Feb-18 13:47
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 192 Morten 16-Feb-18 20:22
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 197 Martin Stower 16-Feb-18 20:52
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 173 Corpuscles 16-Feb-18 21:00
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 205 Martin Stower 17-Feb-18 00:16
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 200 Scott Creighton 17-Feb-18 10:34
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 198 Morten 17-Feb-18 11:03
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 204 Martin Stower 17-Feb-18 12:52
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 194 Martin Stower 18-Feb-18 13:21
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 276 Martin Stower 17-Feb-18 18:06
impressive n/t 268 Morten 17-Feb-18 18:25
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 189 Martin Stower 18-Feb-18 14:56
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 205 R Avry Wilson 16-Feb-18 20:02
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 188 Martin Stower 16-Feb-18 22:58
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 227 Morten 16-Feb-18 18:25
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 183 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 20:46
Thank you n/t 195 Morten 16-Feb-18 20:59
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 230 Merrell 16-Feb-18 09:05
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 292 waggy 16-Feb-18 14:51
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 193 cladking 16-Feb-18 15:11
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 187 Poster Boy 17-Feb-18 00:43
for The Nth time 175 Poster Boy 16-Feb-18 20:18
The 0th Time 205 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 21:38
Re: The 0th Time 187 cladking 16-Feb-18 21:43
Re: The 0th Time 189 Poster Boy 16-Feb-18 22:14
Re: The 0th Time 171 Thanos5150 16-Feb-18 22:29
Re: The 0th Time 167 sfbey 16-Feb-18 22:41
Re: The 0th Time 190 Corpuscles 16-Feb-18 22:30
Re: The 0th Time 165 Poster Boy 16-Feb-18 22:47
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 177 molder 18-Feb-18 12:43
[?] 199 Dr. Troglodyte 18-Feb-18 15:28
the solution? 216 Spiros 18-Feb-18 17:50
Re: the solution? 177 Dr. Troglodyte 18-Feb-18 18:35
Re: the solution? 206 Martin Stower 18-Feb-18 18:43
Re: the solution? 248 waggy 18-Feb-18 19:07
Re: the solution? 202 Martin Stower 18-Feb-18 19:27
Re: the solution? 250 Spiros 18-Feb-18 21:07
The Zeroth Ordinal versus Worker Stamp 183 Manu 06-Apr-18 16:18
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal versus Worker Stamp 243 Audrey 06-Apr-18 19:52


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