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Consider:

nfr and was-scepter
from Campbell’s Chamber after J. S. Perring 1837


”In the following reign of Khufu, the gang seems to have been the most important unit of organization. The texts inscribed on the walls of the relieving chambers of the Great Pyramid name three gangs, each based on a different form of the king’s name. Seven blocks give a gang name based on his Horus name, Ḥr-Mḏdw; ten give a name based on the full form of his nswt-bjtj name, Khnum-Khufu; and two blocks give a name based on the abbreviated form of that name, Khufu. A few of these texts may contain traces of a phyle name followed by a division mark, but the signs and , which occur frequently, cannot be division marks, as they occur with more than one gang. They probably indicate the orientation of the blocks or some other aid to construction.Egyptian Phyles in the Old Kingdom The Evolution of a System of Social Organization, Ann Macy Roth.

”The same nfr symbol appears in a series of drawings of some Old Kingdom constructions. For example, in the construction of Meidun [sic] Pyramid, it appears as a ground reference point for integral values of cubits given as “above zero” (going up) and “below zero” (going down). There are other examples of these number lines at pyramid sites, known and referred to by Egyptologists early in the century, including Borchardt, Petrie, and Reiner, but not mentioned by historians of mathematics, not even Gillings (1972), who played such an important role in revealing the treasures of Egyptian mathematics to a wider public. About fifteen hundred years after Ahmes, in a deed from Edfu, there is a use of the “zero concept as a replacement to a magnitude in geometry,” according to Boyer (1968, p. 18). Perhaps there are other examples waiting to be found in Egypt…The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics, George Gheverghese Joseph.

”In building construction, horizontal leveling lines were used to guide the construction of pyramids and other large structures. These massive stone structures required deep foundations and careful leveling of the courses of stones. One of these leveling lines was used as reference for other levels, and was labeled "nfr," or "zero." Other horizontal leveling lines were spaced 1 cubit apart and labeled as "1 cubit above nfr," "2 cubits above nfr," or 1 cubit, 2 cubits, etc. below nfr. Thus, zero, in this case, was used as a reference for a system of directed or signed numbers. A number of these examples are still visible - on the Great Pyramid of Giza in 1931.”MATHEMATICIANS OF THE AFRICAN DIASPORA, Dr. Scott W. Williams, The Mathematics Department of The State University of New York at Buffalo.

At a minimum the nfr numbers (and likely the was-scepter number) are referenced from a datum point employed in locating the placement of these certain stones.



Dr. Troglodyte


“Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?“ - Decimus Junius Juvenalis
Η άγνοια είναι η μητέρα του μύθου και του μυστηρίου.


“Numero, Pondere et Mensura“


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Subject Views Written By Posted
The Zeroth Ordinal 1337 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 00:18
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 276 Corpuscles 16-Feb-18 01:20
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 223 kborissov 16-Feb-18 02:37
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 282 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 02:59
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 258 sfbey 16-Feb-18 03:34
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 268 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 16:54
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 254 sfbey 16-Feb-18 18:07
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 269 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 18:59
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 239 sfbey 16-Feb-18 19:14
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 255 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 19:37
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 220 sfbey 16-Feb-18 19:55
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 237 cladking 16-Feb-18 20:00
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 247 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:08
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 239 Morten 16-Feb-18 20:13
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 235 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:15
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 249 sfbey 16-Feb-18 20:18
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 260 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:22
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 215 sfbey 16-Feb-18 20:29
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 278 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:34
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 231 sfbey 16-Feb-18 20:44
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 214 Scott Creighton 16-Feb-18 20:50
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 230 Martin Stower 16-Feb-18 22:51
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 237 Martin Stower 16-Feb-18 20:40
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 241 gulsbo 18-Feb-18 13:47
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 229 Morten 16-Feb-18 20:22
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 239 Martin Stower 16-Feb-18 20:52
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 218 Corpuscles 16-Feb-18 21:00
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 235 Martin Stower 17-Feb-18 00:16
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 244 Scott Creighton 17-Feb-18 10:34
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 235 Morten 17-Feb-18 11:03
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 242 Martin Stower 17-Feb-18 12:52
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 225 Martin Stower 18-Feb-18 13:21
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 328 Martin Stower 17-Feb-18 18:06
impressive n/t 332 Morten 17-Feb-18 18:25
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 234 Martin Stower 18-Feb-18 14:56
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 240 R Avry Wilson 16-Feb-18 20:02
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 220 Martin Stower 16-Feb-18 22:58
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 274 Morten 16-Feb-18 18:25
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 213 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 20:46
Thank you n/t 248 Morten 16-Feb-18 20:59
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 266 Merrell 16-Feb-18 09:05
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 347 waggy 16-Feb-18 14:51
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 225 cladking 16-Feb-18 15:11
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 217 PB Bytes 17-Feb-18 00:43
for The Nth time 214 PB Bytes 16-Feb-18 20:18
The 0th Time 241 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Feb-18 21:38
Re: The 0th Time 241 cladking 16-Feb-18 21:43
Re: The 0th Time 240 PB Bytes 16-Feb-18 22:14
Re: The 0th Time 198 Thanos5150 16-Feb-18 22:29
Re: The 0th Time 203 sfbey 16-Feb-18 22:41
Re: The 0th Time 225 Corpuscles 16-Feb-18 22:30
Re: The 0th Time 212 PB Bytes 16-Feb-18 22:47
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal 211 molder 18-Feb-18 12:43
[?] 239 Dr. Troglodyte 18-Feb-18 15:28
the solution? 260 Spiros 18-Feb-18 17:50
Re: the solution? 212 Dr. Troglodyte 18-Feb-18 18:35
Re: the solution? 255 Martin Stower 18-Feb-18 18:43
Re: the solution? 309 waggy 18-Feb-18 19:07
Re: the solution? 246 Martin Stower 18-Feb-18 19:27
Re: the solution? 323 Spiros 18-Feb-18 21:07
The Zeroth Ordinal versus Worker Stamp 223 Manu 06-Apr-18 16:18
Re: The Zeroth Ordinal versus Worker Stamp 291 Audrey 06-Apr-18 19:52


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