Mysteries :
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I must confess I have only just read Graham’s excellent book ‘Mysteries of the Gods’. I make no excuse except to say that I have been ploughing my own separate furrow on lost civilizations in China, notably the Hongshan Culture, which I may make the subject of a separate post. I have, however, written a book (‘Hongshan Jade Treasures: the art, iconography and authentication of carvings from China’s finest Neolithic Culture’, ISBN 9788862442152), based on my collection and attempts to get authorities in China to face reality. As Graham has found elsewhere, there is singular resistance to explore this fascinating Culture and its attendant artifacts, resistance helped by the emperor Qin Xi Huang Di who around 220 BCE deliberately destroyed all books on ancient culture in what is now China!

My suggestion is that the stone megaliths could have been rendered effectively weightless for local transport by use of giant balloons filled with natural gas (methane). These could have been constructed using woven natural cloth in strips that were then sown together, rendered more or less gas tight, and capped. Natural gas comes out of the ground, (as well as from cows) and there is a lot of it in Northern Egypt. And the balloon could be filled and then transported easily to the building site.

If we do some crude sums we get a rough idea of the necessary dimensions. The weight of air at sea level is 1.2 kg per cubic metre, so 12 metric tons (12,000kg) of air occupies a volume of 10,000 cubic metres. Methane (CH4) has roughly half the density of air, so 10,000 cubic metres weighs 6 tons; the difference of 6 tons, is the lifting power of methane in air. Let us allow 3 tons for the cloth, sealing material and stay ropes needed to tether it to the ground and then pull it, and 3 tons remains for weight of the stone to be lifted. If spherical, the diameter of such a balloon would be 26.7 metres. If sausage shaped (as seems more likely) and of diameter 15 metres, it would be 56.5 m long, with a circumference of 47.1 metres, and surface area of cloth including top and bottom, would be 3,614 square metres.

A massive balloon of volume 100,000 cubic metres by the same logic would carry a payload of 30 tons, and if sausage-shaped with a diameter of 30 metres would be 141 metres in length, circumference 94.2 metres. and surface area 14,696 square metres, again including top and bottom.

Surely this would be far the simplest solution, using natural materials, for moving heavy stones, from quarry or landing quay on the Nile to the building site and setting them in place? And it would be more or less as easy wherever their resting place to lay stones, pre-shaped at the quarry site, in place on the Pyramid. And the technology could be applied to almost any megalithic site where there is a ready source of methane.

I am a retired physician not a mathematician, so please check the figures!

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 09-Dec-17 11:18 by drdavidanderson.

My suggestion is that the stone megaliths could have been rendered effectively weightless for local transport by use of giant balloons filled with natural gas (methane). These could have been constructed using woven natural cloth in strips that were then sown together, rendered more or less gas tight, and capped. Natural gas comes out of the ground, (as well as from cows) and there is a lot of it in Northern Egypt. And the balloon could be filled and then transported easily to the building site.

If we do some crude sums we get a rough idea of the necessary dimensions. The weight of air at sea level is 1.2 kg per cubic metre, so 12 metric tons (12,000kg) of air occupies a volume of 10,000 cubic metres. Methane (CH4) has roughly half the density of air, so 10,000 cubic metres weighs 6 tons; the difference of 6 tons, is the lifting power of methane in air. Let us allow 3 tons for the cloth, sealing material and stay ropes needed to tether it to the ground and then pull it, and 3 tons remains for weight of the stone to be lifted. If spherical, the diameter of such a balloon would be 26.7 metres. If sausage shaped (as seems more likely) and of diameter 15 metres, it would be 56.5 m long, with a circumference of 47.1 metres, and surface area of cloth including top and bottom, would be 3,614 square metres.

A massive balloon of volume 100,000 cubic metres by the same logic would carry a payload of 30 tons, and if sausage-shaped with a diameter of 30 metres would be 141 metres in length, circumference 94.2 metres. and surface area 14,696 square metres, again including top and bottom.

Surely this would be far the simplest solution, using natural materials, for moving heavy stones, from quarry or landing quay on the Nile to the building site and setting them in place? And it would be more or less as easy wherever their resting place to lay stones, pre-shaped at the quarry site, in place on the Pyramid. And the technology could be applied to almost any megalithic site where there is a ready source of methane.

I am a retired physician not a mathematician, so please check the figures!

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 09-Dec-17 11:18 by drdavidanderson.

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