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If I recall correctly, in that part of Egypt the weather was from the north. This means when it rained or when sand blew, it usually came from north to south. It also follows that the open portals on G1's north face will tend to accumulate sand and water more than those on the south face. This is exactly what's been reported for the KC shafts and also the Main Entrance.

For example, Gantenbrink reported that the north KC shaft and that the shaft contained a lot of sand. I don't recall him reporting that the southern KC shaft had as much sand. I also don't recall Gantenbrink describing a hole lot of guano in the shaft. Are there any old photos of the southern shaft? I haven't come across any that show a similar stain.

Likewise, limestone powder was reported by Edgar to have been found at the bottom of the DP that was hardened into cement that was barely discernable from the limestone bedrock of the walls of that passage. Edgar postulated that the hardened "cement" was the result of water from the northern rains over centuries that picked up limestone powder in the passage and flowed down to the bottom where it hardened into "rock" as it adhered to the corner formed by the floor and the wall. When he chipped off that cement, he found a preserved worm in it.

Likewise, the stain on the KC wall below the northern shaft in Rutherford's photo is likely similar residual limestone power washed down from rain that collected into the KC's open shaft over the centuries.

There is no compelling reason to assume the KC shaft was designed to be open to the outside environment from the beginning. First, we know that the QC shafts aren't open to the outside. Second, we don't know whether the casing skin may have sealed the upper portal of that shaft (fwiw, Zahi asserts in Whitehead's Djedi paper that this was the case). This would mean that the stain on the KC wall is the result of limestone power accumulation only for the past 1200 years, of from the time the casing were stripped off, allegedly circa 800 AD which is a plausible amount of time to accumulate such a subtle stain from such a narrow, long shaft of masonry in which limestone power could certainly have accumulated over the millennia.

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How can any of us ever know, when all we can do is think?

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Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 2571 Romulus the 2nd 13-Aug-17 14:57
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 529 Thanos5150 13-Aug-17 15:58
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 505 Romulus the 2nd 13-Aug-17 16:14
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 495 Jon Ellison 13-Aug-17 16:25
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 445 Romulus the 2nd 13-Aug-17 16:32
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 381 Jon Ellison 13-Aug-17 16:41
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 354 Romulus the 2nd 13-Aug-17 16:38
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 384 Jon Ellison 13-Aug-17 16:52
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 393 Romulus the 2nd 13-Aug-17 16:58
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 405 Jon Ellison 13-Aug-17 17:06
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 315 Thanos5150 14-Aug-17 20:04
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 469 Thanos5150 13-Aug-17 18:31
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 413 Romulus the 2nd 13-Aug-17 21:24
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 451 Thanos5150 13-Aug-17 23:57
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 380 Romulus the 2nd 14-Aug-17 08:53
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 328 Jon Ellison 14-Aug-17 10:06
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 313 Romulus the 2nd 14-Aug-17 22:38
Re: Water marks on Queen's Chamber 398 Howard West 13-Aug-17 23:59
Re: Water marks on Queen's Chamber 421 Jon Ellison 14-Aug-17 00:40
Re: Water marks on Queen's Chamber 350 Howard West 14-Aug-17 14:59
Re: Water marks on Queen's Chamber 288 D-Archer 15-Aug-17 10:35
Re: Water marks on Queen's Chamber 305 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 13:41
Re: Water marks on Queen's Chamber 268 D-Archer 15-Aug-17 14:13
Re: Where the salt water came from 322 Howard West 15-Aug-17 14:44
Re: Water marks on Queen's Chamber 273 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 16:23
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 367 Thunderbird 14-Aug-17 00:48
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 348 gulsbo 15-Aug-17 16:24
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 361 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 16:55
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 263 Romulus the 2nd 16-Aug-17 22:46
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 330 M. J. Thomas 14-Aug-17 09:16
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 327 Merrell 14-Aug-17 11:34
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 311 Romulus the 2nd 14-Aug-17 12:03
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 282 M. J. Thomas 14-Aug-17 16:05
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 314 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 17:30
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 264 M. J. Thomas 14-Aug-17 19:00
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 269 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 20:33
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 266 M. J. Thomas 14-Aug-17 22:31
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 303 Jon Ellison 14-Aug-17 23:12
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 275 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 23:40
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 259 Jon Ellison 15-Aug-17 00:12
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 310 M. J. Thomas 15-Aug-17 00:45
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 318 Jon Ellison 15-Aug-17 07:54
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 277 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 13:36
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 274 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 23:25
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 257 Jon Ellison 14-Aug-17 23:39
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 298 cladking 15-Aug-17 00:59
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 307 Jon Ellison 14-Aug-17 12:51
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 248 Romulus the 2nd 14-Aug-17 14:13
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 324 Thunderbird 15-Aug-17 01:18
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 283 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 15:57
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 350 cladking 14-Aug-17 17:31
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 290 Jon Ellison 14-Aug-17 19:08
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 299 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 20:40
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 481 Thanos5150 14-Aug-17 16:37
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 397 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 17:52
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 350 M. J. Thomas 14-Aug-17 20:08
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 141 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 20:44
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 400 Thanos5150 14-Aug-17 21:00
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 309 Romulus the 2nd 14-Aug-17 22:41
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 290 Jon Ellison 14-Aug-17 22:57
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 278 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 23:32
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 315 Romulus the 2nd 15-Aug-17 12:42
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 342 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 14:29
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 278 Romulus the 2nd 15-Aug-17 15:55
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 321 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 16:38
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 256 Thanos5150 15-Aug-17 21:11
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 262 Romulus the 2nd 15-Aug-17 22:45
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 283 Jon Ellison 15-Aug-17 23:06
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 285 M. J. Thomas 15-Aug-17 15:36
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 296 Romulus the 2nd 15-Aug-17 16:04
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 366 Jon Ellison 15-Aug-17 16:26
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 281 M. J. Thomas 15-Aug-17 19:25
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 259 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 20:09
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 282 M. J. Thomas 15-Aug-17 21:53
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 282 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 22:14
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 280 Jon Ellison 15-Aug-17 20:26
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 287 M. J. Thomas 15-Aug-17 21:24
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 266 M. J. Thomas 15-Aug-17 21:27
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 264 Jon Ellison 15-Aug-17 22:57
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 295 M. J. Thomas 15-Aug-17 23:38
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 253 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 23:04
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 291 M. J. Thomas 15-Aug-17 23:53
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 293 Origyptian 16-Aug-17 00:49
Great Step ‘V-Shape’ Depression 316 Dr. Troglodyte 15-Aug-17 23:45
Re: Great Step ‘V-Shape’ Depression 289 Origyptian 16-Aug-17 00:47
Re: Great Step ‘V-Shape’ Depression 279 Jon Ellison 16-Aug-17 01:05
Re: Great Step ‘V-Shape’ Depression 299 Origyptian 16-Aug-17 03:38
Re: Great Step ‘V-Shape’ Depression 237 Jon Ellison 16-Aug-17 14:03
Re: Great Step ‘V-Shape’ Depression 312 Romulus the 2nd 16-Aug-17 22:17
Re: Great Step ‘V-Shape’ Depression 336 Romulus the 2nd 16-Aug-17 22:44
mise–en–scène 436 Dr. Troglodyte 16-Aug-17 23:29
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 376 Origyptian 14-Aug-17 23:05
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 298 Romulus the 2nd 15-Aug-17 11:34
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 303 Jon Ellison 15-Aug-17 12:16
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 316 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 13:46
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 324 Thanos5150 15-Aug-17 20:57
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 295 Origyptian 15-Aug-17 21:58
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 278 Apap 15-Aug-17 23:33
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 291 Origyptian 16-Aug-17 00:44
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 208 Thanos5150 16-Aug-17 01:13
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 279 Thanos5150 16-Aug-17 01:25
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 302 Thanos5150 16-Aug-17 01:31
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 266 Origyptian 16-Aug-17 03:47
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 325 Thanos5150 16-Aug-17 04:41
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 263 Origyptian 16-Aug-17 12:29
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 314 Thanos5150 16-Aug-17 14:30
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 274 Jon Ellison 16-Aug-17 13:01
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 383 Romulus the 2nd 16-Aug-17 21:03
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 287 eyeofhorus33 17-Aug-17 17:27
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 327 cladking 17-Aug-17 18:09
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 372 eyeofhorus33 17-Aug-17 19:12
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 309 cladking 17-Aug-17 21:43
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 307 Romulus the 2nd 17-Aug-17 23:18
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 260 Origyptian 18-Aug-17 16:42
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 289 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 16:56
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 286 Romulus the 2nd 18-Aug-17 19:44
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 266 Origyptian 18-Aug-17 20:04
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 262 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 20:44
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 258 Origyptian 18-Aug-17 21:07
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 255 Thanos5150 18-Aug-17 22:10
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 299 Apap 18-Aug-17 22:35
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 256 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 23:05
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 303 Thanos5150 18-Aug-17 23:30
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 275 Apap 18-Aug-17 23:32
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 247 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 23:49
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 254 Apap 19-Aug-17 00:03
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 290 Jon Ellison 19-Aug-17 00:08
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 194 Romulus the 2nd 22-Aug-17 10:00
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 190 Jon Ellison 22-Aug-17 11:21
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 204 Jon Ellison 22-Aug-17 11:39
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 218 Romulus the 2nd 22-Aug-17 21:06
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 227 Origyptian 22-Aug-17 12:02
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 161 Romulus the 2nd 22-Aug-17 21:15
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 181 Origyptian 23-Aug-17 04:01
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 251 Audrey 23-Aug-17 02:09
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 227 Origyptian 23-Aug-17 04:06
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 323 Jon Ellison 23-Aug-17 08:57
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 264 Jon Ellison 19-Aug-17 00:04
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 273 Origyptian 19-Aug-17 15:34
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 408 Apap 17-Aug-17 18:45
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 343 Romulus the 2nd 18-Aug-17 00:36
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 313 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 10:05
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 287 Origyptian 18-Aug-17 17:23
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 253 M. J. Thomas 18-Aug-17 18:22
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 296 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 19:12
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 352 Origyptian 18-Aug-17 20:23
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 286 Romulus the 2nd 18-Aug-17 19:49
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 262 Origyptian 18-Aug-17 16:50
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 340 Apap 18-Aug-17 18:05
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 261 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 19:20
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 265 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 19:58
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 273 Jon Ellison 18-Aug-17 20:28
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 260 Origyptian 18-Aug-17 20:15
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 283 Romulus the 2nd 18-Aug-17 20:16
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 301 Apap 18-Aug-17 22:02
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 251 Origyptian 19-Aug-17 15:10
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 201 Romulus the 2nd 20-Aug-17 21:59
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 290 DUNE 19-Aug-17 12:16
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 256 M. J. Thomas 19-Aug-17 20:54
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 291 Jon Ellison 19-Aug-17 22:04
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 286 DUNE 19-Aug-17 22:51
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 250 Origyptian 19-Aug-17 23:17
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 279 Origyptian 21-Aug-17 03:02
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 275 Jon Ellison 21-Aug-17 09:27
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 256 Origyptian 22-Aug-17 05:21
Re: KC Watertight flooring 259 M. J. Thomas 20-Aug-17 00:46
Re: KC Watertight flooring 192 Origyptian 20-Aug-17 04:00
Re: KC Watertight flooring 222 M. J. Thomas 20-Aug-17 17:34
Re: KC Watertight flooring 319 Jon Ellison 20-Aug-17 07:41
Re: KC Watertight flooring 218 M. J. Thomas 20-Aug-17 17:26
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 276 Apap 18-Aug-17 21:43
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 266 Dr. Troglodyte 18-Aug-17 22:54
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 326 Apap 18-Aug-17 23:51
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 326 Origyptian 19-Aug-17 15:53
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 224 M. J. Thomas 20-Aug-17 00:55
Re: Water marks on King's Chamber shaft opening 189 Origyptian 20-Aug-17 04:15


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