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Over the years many have proposed various methods to explain how the Great Pyramid was built, yet as a rule such proponents ignore the fact all the pyramids of Egypt, if not the world, also require the same explanation. As amazing as the details of G1 may be, it still follows the same general construction principles as the rest therefore whatever method is devised to explain G1 must apply to all. Which of course they never do.

What we can see without exception in Egypt from exposed pyramids, whether the finished product was smooth sided or not, the principle structures are stepped built around a central "tower shaped" multi-stage (stepped) core.








To look back at the queen's pyramids at Giza we can see they were finished as true pyramids with casing stones still seen at the base:

LARGE PHOTO

In which we can see the very stages of completion right before our eyes:


They are not built in horizontal courses, but rather around a staged core structure built first in which vertical rows, "accretion layers", are added vertically in horizontal rows layer by layer around the core like so:

Applied to G1:

[*** (added) see reply titled "accretion layers"-If not clear, picture for display purposes only and not to be taken literally]

Visible accretion layer, Djoser's Saqqara pyramid:


What we see is that before, during, and after the construction of the great pyramids, G1 included, that with every exposed pyramid we see the same basic stepped tower core construction method which there is no reason to expect the great pyramids, including G1, to be any different. What this means is that the core facing blocks are not stacked in horizontal courses deck by deck until you get to the top, but rather vertically in rows around a multi-stage inner tower core with the final outer core laid horizontally.

Further to consider about G1 and G2, as was Abu Roash, is that they were built by incorporating a preexisting natural outcrop core. For perspective, we can see this exposed at Abu Roash:

The interior was also of course cut from this outcrop, not "built":


Estimates suggest that 40% of the original volume of the Abu Roash structure was a natural outcrop. By comparison G1 is conservatively estimated, based on it's visible parts, to have been at least 40ft high comprising 23% of its total volume.https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00319586/document The natural core of G2 is estimated to occupy 11.5% of its total volume. According to this source:
Quote

These results are deduced from direct observation and should be regarded as minimum values. For the great pyramids [G1/G2], we propose a model postulating larger volumes and heights of approximately 20m [65ft].

The point is that when considering construction methods and sequences for G1 (and G2) what needs to be taken into account is that at least 23% of the volume was already there which is a number based on the total volume of the pyramid. If we accept the natural outcrop to have been 65ft high this would actually be a much higher percentage of the volume up to that height, probably at least 50%(?).

It is also interesting to note, which may have been what the authors of the source linked above had in mind, is that not only does the Queen's chamber and passage sit right at 65ft (20m) i.e. at the top of the proposed height of the outcrop:

LARGER

But also the beginning of the Grand Gallery which has further been proposed by some, which I believe has merit, to function as a ramp system for transport of the large stones of the King's and Relieving Chambers:


Top of well shaft as seen from bottom of GG:


To consider all that has been said:
1) The majority of the base of G1, its greatest volume to this height, was already there in the form of the natural outcrop. This outcrop would have already been roughly the shape of a truncated pyramid and shaped further, of note being the 65ft high deck in which all the upper chambers and GG are built directly on top of. Considering the greatest volume of a pyramid is located at its base, the preexisting outcrop would have reduced the amount of labor and stone required considerably. Probably the reason this site was chosen in the first place.

2) The outcrop would have acted as a preexisting staged core which just like all the other pyramids the outer core layers would have been added later in vertically layers and not horizontally course by course (deck by deck). This further dispels the notion proposed by some, if needed, that the casing stones were laid first and the core built behind them.

3) The 65ft course would have been the construction deck for completing the upper chamber system in which after the completion of the QC, the area above it was built up and the Grand Gallery was constructed as a ramp and pulley system to move the stones of the KC, and RC. Previously I proposed a rough model of the order of construction like this with each color representing different phases:

(I would modify it somewhat at this point to factor in the outcrop among other things, but you get the idea.)

The blocks of the 35th course are notably larger in size than the other courses (with the exception of the base) which is located directly above the apex of the QC roof:

It stands to reason this had something to do with the creation of the foundation level set on top of the outcrop to ensure stability for the upper chambers and ramp system of the GG.

4) I know this drawing really really sucks so use your imagination and don't take it literally, but I propose a reverse inclined ramp which utilizes a series of shaduf cranes positioned on steps on each end:


Blocks are brought to one end on a sled and lifted by a shaduf step by step until it reaches the deck of the ramp. It is then slid slightly downhill along oiled skids using gravity as mechanical advantage until it reaches the other end. From there it is lifted again using a series of shadufs positioned on steps which terminates on the 65ft deck which at that point the lifting is handed off to the GG. This system is used for as long as possible utilizing the raising of the deck in increments as staging areas for each rising course. The upper chambers are completed and the GG roof is added which at this point another multi-staged staged tower is built around these finished structures and the rest of the pyramid is completed using the accretion layer (vertical row) process.

The use of a shaduf stepped system greatly reduces the length and size of the ramp and using an inverted incline uses the help of gravity along its greatest length of travel further reducing labor and time. The use of counter weights on the shadufs, namely the people pulling the ropes to lift it, greatly reduces the effort to lift the blocks and also further moves the blocks in distance obviously both vertically and horizontally.

In conclusion, some of you will read this and ignore what is said and only focus on the minutia that does not conform to your pet theories and pedantically argue accordingly. Do yourself and the rest of us a favor and save it. The point is that when thinking of theories of how G1 was constructed, how all of the pyramids were built must be considered, not only as it applies to them all, meaning whatever system is used must also apply to the rest, but also how what we see in these other pyramids applies to G1. Regardless of how amazing G1 is, it did not fall out of the sky and belongs to a greater whole that must equally be accounted for.



Edited 25 time(s). Last edit at 03-Mar-20 16:02 by Thanos5150.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
Pyramid Construction 7013 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 06:05
Re: Pyramid Construction & Grand Gallery 971 M. J. Thomas 11-Dec-16 11:10
Re: Pyramid Construction & Grand Gallery 887 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 17:28
Re: Pyramid Construction & Grand Gallery 822 cladking 11-Dec-16 19:03
Re: Pyramid Construction 795 Jon Ellison 11-Dec-16 12:49
Re: Pyramid Construction 755 cladking 11-Dec-16 14:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 668 DScribr 11-Dec-16 14:49
Re: Pyramid Construction 738 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 18:03
Re: Pyramid Construction 711 Lee McGiffen 16-Dec-16 10:43
Re: Pyramid Construction 669 DUNE 16-Dec-16 12:08
Re: Pyramid Construction 615 DUNE 16-Dec-16 14:10
Re: Pyramid Construction 749 cladking 11-Dec-16 14:57
Re: Pyramid Construction 643 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 17:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 753 cladking 11-Dec-16 19:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 691 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 17:43
Re: Pyramid Construction 681 sfbey 11-Dec-16 17:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 684 DScribr 11-Dec-16 21:20
Re: Pyramid Construction 529 Warwick 11-Dec-16 21:25
Re: Pyramid Construction 767 DScribr 11-Dec-16 22:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 611 Warwick 11-Dec-16 20:56
Block Construction 648 DScribr 11-Dec-16 21:23
Re: Block Construction 673 Warwick 11-Dec-16 21:35
Re: Block Construction 706 randompHactor 11-Dec-16 21:53
Re: Block Construction 630 DScribr 11-Dec-16 22:59
Re: Pyramid Construction 727 loveritas 11-Dec-16 22:16
Re: Pyramid Construction 678 DScribr 11-Dec-16 23:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 647 loveritas 12-Dec-16 01:08
Re: Pyramid Construction 692 DScribr 12-Dec-16 14:31
More Sand 672 loveritas 12-Dec-16 22:11
Re: More Sand 652 cladking 12-Dec-16 23:19
Re: More Sand 668 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 00:15
Re: More Sand 663 cladking 13-Dec-16 00:25
Re: More Sand 665 DScribr 13-Dec-16 01:03
Re: More Sand 663 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 01:19
Where is the Sand 686 DScribr 13-Dec-16 01:00
Re: Where is the Sand 667 cladking 13-Dec-16 02:15
Re: Where is the Sand 680 DScribr 13-Dec-16 03:34
Re: More Sand 718 Audrey 13-Dec-16 03:50
Re: More Sand 641 cladking 13-Dec-16 04:43
Re: More Sand 711 Audrey 13-Dec-16 04:55
Re: More Sand 748 Jon Ellison 13-Dec-16 11:40
Re: More Sand 756 Audrey 14-Dec-16 02:43
Re: More Sand 755 Jon Ellison 14-Dec-16 10:39
Re: More Sand 692 Audrey 15-Dec-16 01:19
Re: More Sand 688 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 03:03
Re: More Sand 659 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 03:19
Re: More Sand 696 Audrey 15-Dec-16 05:40
Re: More Sand 645 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 09:50
Re: More Sand 604 DUNE 15-Dec-16 11:35
Re: More Sand 618 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 12:38
Re: More Sand 659 Audrey 16-Dec-16 06:10
Re: More Sand 653 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 14:52
Re: More Sand 609 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 14:33
Re: More Sand 599 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 15:17
Re: More Sand 626 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 15:35
Re: More Sand 607 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 15:45
Re: More Sand 681 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 16:02
Re: More Sand 617 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 16:25
Re: More Sand 583 DUNE 15-Dec-16 17:00
Re: More Sand 516 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 17:20
Re: More Sand 645 DUNE 15-Dec-16 17:38
Re: More Sand 603 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 17:48
Re: More Sand 667 Audrey 16-Dec-16 06:27
Re: More Sand 605 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 14:41
Re: More Sand 649 DUNE 16-Dec-16 15:38
Re: More Sand 566 Thanos5150 16-Dec-16 17:02
Re: More Sand 724 DUNE 16-Dec-16 17:15
Re: More Sand 643 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 19:12
Re: More Sand 612 DUNE 16-Dec-16 20:04
Re: More Sand 682 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 17:01
Re: More Sand 542 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 17:33
Chisel Marks Suggest..... 629 DScribr 15-Dec-16 15:20
Re: Chisel Marks Suggest..... 656 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 15:41
Re: Chisel Marks Suggest..... 605 DScribr 15-Dec-16 15:49
Re: More Sand 593 Audrey 16-Dec-16 06:17
Re: More Sand 624 Jon Ellison 14-Dec-16 11:43
Popular Posters 689 loveritas 14-Dec-16 10:57
Re: Popular Posters 753 M. J. Thomas 14-Dec-16 13:52
Re: Popular Posters 618 DScribr 14-Dec-16 15:18
Presumption Correction 758 loveritas 13-Dec-16 06:35
Re: Presumption Correction 710 Audrey 13-Dec-16 06:38
Re: More Sand 709 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 07:17
Re: More Sand 630 cladking 13-Dec-16 14:46
Re: More Sand 680 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 18:07
Re: More Sand 601 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 19:07
Re: More Sand 695 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:19
Re: More Sand 653 Thanos5150 14-Dec-16 02:34
Re: More Sand 680 cladking 14-Dec-16 03:41
Re: More Sand 613 Thanos5150 15-Dec-16 17:39
Re: More Sand 678 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:16
Re: More Sand 608 Audrey 14-Dec-16 03:31
GOT Sand??? 661 DScribr 14-Dec-16 04:06
Re: GOT Sand??? 694 Audrey 14-Dec-16 04:36
Re: GOT brains??? 659 DScribr 14-Dec-16 15:16
Re: GOT Sand??? 759 cladking 14-Dec-16 04:51
Who Ya' Gonna Call? 687 cladking 17-Dec-16 17:51
Re: More Sand 558 loveritas 13-Dec-16 01:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 595 Steve Clayton 11-Dec-16 23:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 585 Sirius7237 12-Dec-16 00:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 669 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 01:03
Re: Pyramid Construction 620 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 01:19
Re: Pyramid Construction 635 Sirius7237 12-Dec-16 05:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 862 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 06:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 685 Sirius7237 13-Dec-16 23:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 594 Thanos5150 14-Dec-16 19:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 660 M. J. Thomas 12-Dec-16 11:52
Re: Pyramid Construction 658 Sirius7237 12-Dec-16 17:24
Re: Pyramid Construction 656 M. J. Thomas 13-Dec-16 01:22
Re: Pyramid Construction 631 DScribr 13-Dec-16 03:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 703 Steve Clayton 13-Dec-16 18:13
Re: Pyramid Construction 615 Jon Ellison 13-Dec-16 18:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 677 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 646 Steve Clayton 13-Dec-16 23:22
Re: Pyramid Construction 619 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:27
Re: Pyramid Construction 605 Sirius7237 13-Dec-16 23:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 631 Steve Clayton 14-Dec-16 17:31
Houdin's most critical error 710 Warwick 14-Dec-16 18:17
Re: Houdin's most critical error 618 Steve Clayton 14-Dec-16 18:52
Re: Houdin's most critical error 699 Warwick 14-Dec-16 19:14
Re: Houdin's most critical error 599 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 21:07
the $64,000.00 Question 673 Warwick 16-Dec-16 19:35
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 576 DScribr 16-Dec-16 21:03
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 632 Warwick 16-Dec-16 22:03
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 674 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 22:23
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 610 Warwick 16-Dec-16 22:43
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 627 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 23:07
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 595 M. J. Thomas 18-Dec-16 11:24
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 655 DUNE 18-Dec-16 12:14
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 593 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 17:05
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 686 DUNE 18-Dec-16 17:51
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 561 Origyptian 19-Dec-16 01:47
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 517 Jon Ellison 19-Dec-16 19:41
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 563 DUNE 19-Dec-16 21:29
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 499 Jon Ellison 19-Dec-16 22:47
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 602 DUNE 19-Dec-16 23:21
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 529 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 11:56
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 605 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 14:53
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 554 cladking 18-Dec-16 16:17
Where are the Taxonomies? 583 cladking 18-Dec-16 16:26
Re: Where are the Taxonomies? 601 cladking 18-Dec-16 16:33
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 542 M. J. Thomas 18-Dec-16 16:26
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 602 cladking 18-Dec-16 16:43
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 606 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 16:58
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 605 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 16:44
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 483 M. J. Thomas 18-Dec-16 17:33
In A Cemetery 599 DScribr 18-Dec-16 20:06
Re: In A Cemetery 586 cladking 18-Dec-16 20:11
Re: In A Cemetery 606 DScribr 18-Dec-16 22:59
Re: In A Cemetery 567 cladking 19-Dec-16 00:52
Re: In A Cemetery 594 DScribr 19-Dec-16 01:32
Re: In A Cemetery 496 Origyptian 19-Dec-16 01:52
Re: In A Cemetery 604 DScribr 19-Dec-16 03:54
Re: In A Cemetery 641 Thanos5150 19-Dec-16 04:44
Re: In A Cemetery 549 M. J. Thomas 19-Dec-16 17:53
Re: In A Cemetery 539 cladking 19-Dec-16 17:59
Re: In A Cemetery 552 Origyptian 19-Dec-16 18:13
Yes, Buried In A Cemetery 583 DScribr 20-Dec-16 03:50
Re: Yes, Buried In A Cemetery 562 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 15:34
Re: In A Cemetery 576 M. J. Thomas 20-Dec-16 11:23
Re: In A Cemetery 547 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 11:28
Re: In A Cemetery 536 M. J. Thomas 20-Dec-16 11:52
Re: In A Cemetery 512 Corpuscles 20-Dec-16 11:58
Re: In A Cemetery 491 DUNE 20-Dec-16 15:06
Re: In A Cemetery 537 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 17:42
Re: In A Cemetery 569 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 15:49
Re: In A Cemetery 527 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 16:31
Re: In A Cemetery 482 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 16:49
Re: In A Cemetery 539 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 17:11
Re: In A Cemetery 526 cladking 20-Dec-16 19:46
Re: In A Cemetery 522 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 20:51
Re: In A Cemetery 547 Warwick 20-Dec-16 20:56
Re: In A Cemetery 597 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 21:09
Re: In A Cemetery 532 Warwick 20-Dec-16 21:15
Re: In A Cemetery 508 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 21:42
Re: In A Cemetery 502 Warwick 21-Dec-16 23:01
Re: In A Cemetery 587 Origyptian 22-Dec-16 05:28
Re: In A Cemetery 519 cladking 20-Dec-16 21:07
Re: Why was the Egyptologist so depressed? 579 Sirius7237 21-Dec-16 02:58
He just wasn't getting enough FUNicular... 513 cladking 21-Dec-16 20:27
Re: He just wasn't getting enough FUNicular... 433 Warwick 21-Dec-16 21:35
Re: In A Cemetery 594 Thanos5150 20-Dec-16 21:44
Re: In A Cemetery 477 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 22:13
Re: In A Cemetery 577 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 00:02
Re: In A Cemetery 602 Origyptian 21-Dec-16 01:24
Re: In A Cemetery 595 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 01:55
Re: In A Cemetery 606 Audrey 21-Dec-16 02:52
Enough et als to build a pyramid. 568 cladking 21-Dec-16 03:06
Re: In A Cemetery 588 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 03:15
Re: In A Cemetery 570 Audrey 21-Dec-16 04:50
Re: In A Cemetery 593 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 21:02
sidebar 588 Warwick 21-Dec-16 21:16
Re: In A Cemetery 657 Audrey 22-Dec-16 02:01
Re: In A Cemetery 645 eyeofhorus33 21-Dec-16 07:16
Re: In A Cemetery 561 Corpuscles 21-Dec-16 12:00
Re: In A Cemetery 483 M. J. Thomas 21-Dec-16 13:39
Re: In A Cemetery 508 eyeofhorus33 21-Dec-16 13:54
Re: In A Cemetery 626 DUNE 21-Dec-16 15:55
Re: In A Cemetery 619 Thunderbird 21-Dec-16 17:48
Re: In A Cemetery 556 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 22:33
Re: In A Cemetery 665 Martin Stower 21-Dec-16 22:02
Re: In A Cemetery 546 Warwick 21-Dec-16 22:11
Re: In A Cemetery 582 Audrey 21-Dec-16 02:49
Re: In A Cemetery 553 M. J. Thomas 21-Dec-16 06:02
Re: In A Cemetery 579 cladking 21-Dec-16 14:44
Re: In A Cemetery 340 Steve Clayton 30-Mar-18 20:42
Re: In A Cemetery 480 DScribr 19-Dec-16 23:06
Re: Pyramid Construction 630 Sirius7237 14-Dec-16 23:27
Re: Pyramid Construction 709 Steve Clayton 15-Dec-16 02:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 568 Sirius7237 15-Dec-16 03:12
Re: Pyramid Construction 636 Sirius7237 15-Dec-16 04:25
Re: Pyramid Construction 645 Steve Clayton 15-Dec-16 13:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 675 Sirius7237 15-Dec-16 15:35
Animal Fat for Lube?!? 648 DScribr 15-Dec-16 15:48
Re: Animal Fat for Lube?!? 613 Steve Clayton 15-Dec-16 17:26
Re: Animal Fat reduces Friction-That's A Fact! 601 DScribr 15-Dec-16 20:13
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 592 Sirius7237 17-Dec-16 22:09
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 602 Steve Clayton 19-Dec-16 02:03
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 748 Sirius7237 19-Dec-16 18:42
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 565 Steve Clayton 20-Dec-16 17:56
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 459 Sirius7237 21-Dec-16 02:56
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 563 Steve Clayton 21-Dec-16 18:04
Re: Pyramid Construction 635 cladking 12-Dec-16 14:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 591 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 15:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 587 cladking 12-Dec-16 15:56
Re: Pyramid Construction 610 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 01:18
Re: Pyramid Construction 611 Sirius7237 12-Dec-16 05:57
Re: Pyramid Construction 589 cladking 12-Dec-16 02:46
Re: Pyramid Construction 568 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 01:26
Re: Accretion Layers 557 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 02:14
Re: G3 Exposed 733 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 03:53
Re: G3 Exposed 639 loveritas 12-Dec-16 04:44
Re: G3 Exposed 579 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 05:15
Re: G3 Exposed 800 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 05:39
Re: G3 Exposed 644 loveritas 12-Dec-16 06:17
Re: G3 Exposed 572 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 15:40
Re: G3 Exposed 564 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 16:40
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 754 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 04:02
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 611 loveritas 12-Dec-16 05:12
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 644 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 05:21
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 632 loveritas 12-Dec-16 05:38
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 804 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 06:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 628 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 14:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 566 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 16:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 559 DScribr 12-Dec-16 17:28
Re: Pyramid Construction 579 Warwick 12-Dec-16 18:01
Re: Pyramid Construction 548 cladking 12-Dec-16 18:32
Re: Pyramid Construction 574 Warwick 12-Dec-16 18:53
Re: Pyramid Construction 605 cladking 12-Dec-16 19:18
Re: Pyramid Construction 579 Warwick 12-Dec-16 19:46
Re: Pyramid Construction 536 cladking 12-Dec-16 20:43
Re: Pyramid Construction 560 Warwick 13-Dec-16 19:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 557 cladking 13-Dec-16 20:29
NO 560 Warwick 13-Dec-16 21:54
Re: Pyramid Construction 591 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 603 Warwick 14-Dec-16 18:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 594 cladking 14-Dec-16 18:52
While Egyptology fiddles... 554 cladking 14-Dec-16 19:32
Re: While Egyptology fiddles... 611 Warwick 16-Dec-16 19:48
Re: While Egyptology fiddles... 543 cladking 16-Dec-16 20:22
Re: While Egyptology fiddles... 607 Warwick 16-Dec-16 22:48
Re: While Egyptology fiddles... 589 cladking 16-Dec-16 23:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 608 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 20:45
Re: Pyramid Construction 616 cladking 12-Dec-16 21:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 497 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 22:26
Re: Pyramid Construction 592 cladking 12-Dec-16 23:13
Mind-reading a means of Sentence (Re)Construction 630 DScribr 13-Dec-16 01:06
Re: Mind-reading a means of Sentence (Re)Construction 576 cladking 13-Dec-16 02:27
Re: Mind-reading a means of Sentence (Re)Construction-Webster's is not...... 593 DScribr 13-Dec-16 03:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 529 Steve Clayton 14-Dec-16 19:35
Re: Pyramid Construction 591 cladking 14-Dec-16 19:40
Re: Pyramid Construction 542 Warwick 14-Dec-16 20:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 566 cladking 14-Dec-16 20:40
Re: Pyramid Construction 553 Audrey 15-Dec-16 01:39
Re: Pyramid Construction 641 cladking 15-Dec-16 01:48
correction 490 Warwick 16-Dec-16 19:30
Re: correction 581 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 19:49
Re: correction 552 Warwick 16-Dec-16 20:05
Re: correction 530 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 20:27
Re: correction 548 Warwick 16-Dec-16 22:10
Re: correction 539 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 22:50
NONE 430 DScribr 16-Dec-16 22:59
Re: correction 544 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 22:53
Re: 21st Century Westerner v 4th Dyn. Ancient Egyptian 541 M. J. Thomas 18-Dec-16 23:28
Re: correction 567 Martin Stower 22-Dec-16 16:20
Re: correction 496 DocKnowles 22-Dec-16 20:22
Re: correction 552 Martin Stower 22-Dec-16 21:00
Re: correction 577 DocKnowles 23-Dec-16 06:43
Re: correction 519 eyeofhorus33 23-Dec-16 07:43
Re: correction 509 DocKnowles 23-Dec-16 10:44
Re: correction 491 eyeofhorus33 23-Dec-16 12:06
Re: correction 516 cladking 23-Dec-16 14:26
Re: correction 536 eyeofhorus33 23-Dec-16 15:41
Re: correction 556 cladking 23-Dec-16 17:13
Re: correction 480 Origyptian 23-Dec-16 17:16
Re: correction 448 cladking 23-Dec-16 17:31
Re: correction 561 Thanos5150 23-Dec-16 17:39
Re: correction 557 eyeofhorus33 24-Dec-16 08:13
Re: correction 539 cladking 24-Dec-16 15:18
Re: correction 565 eyeofhorus33 24-Dec-16 16:49
Re: correction 532 cladking 24-Dec-16 17:24
Re: correction 498 Thanos5150 24-Dec-16 16:52
Re: correction 489 Origyptian 24-Dec-16 18:12
Re: correction 569 Martin Stower 24-Dec-16 23:42
Re: correction 585 Thanos5150 25-Dec-16 00:51
Re: correction 541 Thanos5150 25-Dec-16 01:03
Re: correction 663 DUNE 27-Dec-16 18:09
Re: correction 640 DUNE 30-Dec-16 21:16
Re: correction 626 Thanos5150 30-Dec-16 23:58
Re: correction 746 eyeofhorus33 31-Dec-16 07:38
Re: correction 513 Martin Stower 23-Dec-16 14:44
Re: correction 525 DocKnowles 23-Dec-16 20:39
Re: correction 516 Martin Stower 23-Dec-16 22:02
Re: correction 499 Thanos5150 16-Dec-16 21:42
Re: correction 514 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 22:24
Re: correction 657 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 22:38
Re: correction 531 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 23:00
Re: correction 683 Thanos5150 16-Dec-16 23:32
Re: correction 536 Jon Ellison 17-Dec-16 00:46
Re: correction 537 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 05:28
Re: correction 500 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 06:02
Re: correction 466 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 06:31
Re: correction 499 Audrey 17-Dec-16 07:07
Re: correction 577 DUNE 17-Dec-16 11:16
Re: correction 484 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 14:39
Re: correction 585 DUNE 17-Dec-16 16:48
Re: correction 555 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 17:00
Block Removal 583 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:25
Re: correction 583 Jon Ellison 17-Dec-16 12:36
Re: correction 517 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 15:08
Re: correction 617 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 13:56
Egypto-illogic. 485 cladking 17-Dec-16 15:32
Re: Egypto-illogic. 498 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 16:41
Ori-illogic. 547 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:12
Re: Egypto-illogic. 523 cladking 17-Dec-16 17:38
Got Shovels? 519 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:30
Reality-what a concept 593 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:09
Re: correction 419 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 18:26
Re: correction 553 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 19:14
Re: correction 518 cladking 17-Dec-16 19:37
Re: correction 493 Audrey 17-Dec-16 20:14
Modern Gods! 457 cladking 17-Dec-16 20:55
Re: correction 532 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 22:27
Birds Of A Feather 523 DScribr 17-Dec-16 22:30
Re: correction 493 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 00:37
Re: correction 540 Audrey 18-Dec-16 01:35
Re: correction 472 Thanos5150 18-Dec-16 02:29
Re: correction 483 Audrey 18-Dec-16 01:21
Re: correction 551 cladking 18-Dec-16 02:03
Re: correction 361 Warwick 20-Dec-16 20:45
Re: correction 531 cladking 20-Dec-16 21:28
Re: correction 585 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 06:50
Re: correction 537 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 14:45
"We" have no objective reason to believe..... 587 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:16
Re: correction 464 cladking 17-Dec-16 14:51
Post o' the week! 508 DScribr 17-Dec-16 16:04
Re: Post o' the week! 506 cladking 17-Dec-16 16:11
Same Old Logic 569 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:00
Re: correction 548 Warwick 20-Dec-16 20:33
Re: correction 584 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 05:43
Not cropped, 'enhanced.' 580 DScribr 17-Dec-16 02:10
Re: correction 558 Audrey 17-Dec-16 03:45
Re: correction 440 Audrey 17-Dec-16 03:40
Re: correction 550 Warwick 20-Dec-16 20:28
Re: correction 455 cladking 20-Dec-16 21:37
Re: correction 559 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 22:08
Re: correction 535 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 21:47
Ducks in a barrel 506 Warwick 21-Dec-16 20:50
Re: Ducks in a barrel 580 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 21:15
Re: Ducks in a barrel 689 Origyptian 22-Dec-16 05:15
Re: correction 571 Martin Stower 22-Dec-16 01:14
Re: correction 567 Audrey 21-Dec-16 01:54
Good Grief!!! 562 Warwick 21-Dec-16 20:32
Re: Good Grief!!! 572 Origyptian 21-Dec-16 23:04
Clueless 600 eyeofhorus33 21-Dec-16 23:24
Re: Clueless 518 Audrey 22-Dec-16 02:08
Re: Good Grief!!! 612 Martin Stower 21-Dec-16 23:45
Re: Pyramid Construction 668 Steve Clayton 15-Dec-16 02:59
Re: Pyramid Construction 597 cladking 15-Dec-16 04:00
The AE HAD Air Conditioning!!! 609 DScribr 15-Dec-16 04:54
Re: The AE HAD Air Conditioning!!! 589 cladking 15-Dec-16 05:15
Re: The AE HAD Air Conditioning!!! 587 DScribr 15-Dec-16 15:22
Re: The AE HAD Air Conditioning!!! 485 cladking 15-Dec-16 17:08
thank you for the opportunity 576 Warwick 13-Dec-16 19:35
Re: Pyramid Construction 601 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 20:31
It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 584 cladking 12-Dec-16 21:03
Re: It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 607 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 22:32
Re: It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 601 cladking 12-Dec-16 22:58
Re: It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 657 Steve Clayton 13-Dec-16 00:09
Re: It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 606 cladking 13-Dec-16 00:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 640 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 20:24
Re: Pyramid Construction 659 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 19:20
Re: Pyramid Construction 541 DocKnowles 18-Dec-16 09:53
Re: Pyramid Construction 484 Thanos5150 02-Mar-18 03:04
Re: Pyramid Construction 333 Origyptian 02-Mar-18 17:13
Re: Pyramid Construction 407 Steve Clayton 02-Mar-18 17:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 388 Steve Clayton 02-Mar-18 23:13
Re: Pyramid Construction 331 Origyptian 03-Mar-18 01:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 405 Audrey 03-Mar-18 03:47
Re: Pyramid Construction 391 cladking 03-Mar-18 04:20
Re: Pyramid Construction 456 Audrey 03-Mar-18 07:07
Re: Pyramid Construction 348 cladking 03-Mar-18 14:44
Re: Pyramid Construction 332 Audrey 04-Mar-18 21:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 344 cladking 04-Mar-18 23:10
Re: Pyramid Construction 335 Audrey 05-Mar-18 00:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 316 cladking 05-Mar-18 04:51
Re: Pyramid Construction 335 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 03:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 421 Origyptian 03-Mar-18 13:04
Re: Pyramid Construction 340 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 16:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 361 Origyptian 04-Mar-18 04:09
Re: Pyramid Construction 353 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 21:06
Re: Pyramid Construction 400 Origyptian 04-Mar-18 04:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 347 Thanos5150 03-Mar-18 17:11
Re: Pyramid Construction 344 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 17:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 305 cladking 03-Mar-18 19:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 342 Thanos5150 03-Mar-18 22:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 330 Audrey 03-Mar-18 18:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 317 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 20:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 331 Audrey 04-Mar-18 22:10
Re: Pyramid Construction 334 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 22:50
Re: Pyramid Construction 347 cladking 04-Mar-18 23:22
Re: Pyramid Construction 323 Thanos5150 03-Mar-18 21:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 404 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 23:35
Re: Pyramid Construction 308 Thanos5150 04-Mar-18 16:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 350 Audrey 04-Mar-18 21:47
Re: Pyramid Construction 343 DUNE 04-Mar-18 22:07
Re: Pyramid Construction 324 Thanos5150 05-Mar-18 02:16
Re: Pyramid Construction 350 Warwick 05-Mar-18 16:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 363 cladking 05-Mar-18 05:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 376 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 02:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 363 Warwick 05-Mar-18 16:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 350 Thanos5150 05-Mar-18 18:01
Re: Pyramid Construction 371 Origyptian 05-Mar-18 18:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 370 Warwick 06-Mar-18 00:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 345 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 04:34
Re: Pyramid Construction 383 Warwick 06-Mar-18 04:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 371 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 14:33
Riposte 386 Warwick 06-Mar-18 16:27
Re: Riposte 381 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 16:37
Re: Riposte 311 Warwick 06-Mar-18 16:54
Re: Riposte 355 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 17:15
Re: Riposte 345 Warwick 06-Mar-18 19:18
Re: Riposte 310 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 19:30
coup de grace 365 Warwick 06-Mar-18 20:06
Re: Pyramid Construction 340 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 17:37
Re: Pyramid Construction 313 cladking 04-Mar-18 17:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 370 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 18:51
Re: Pyramid Construction 331 DUNE 04-Mar-18 19:06
Re: Pyramid Construction 344 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 20:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 346 cladking 04-Mar-18 21:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 387 Origyptian 04-Mar-18 20:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 372 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 20:49
Re: Pyramid Construction 335 Origyptian 04-Mar-18 21:28
Re: Pyramid Construction 384 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 22:19
Re: Pyramid Construction 367 Origyptian 05-Mar-18 02:13
Re: Pyramid Construction 372 cladking 04-Mar-18 20:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 394 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 23:16
Re: Pyramid Construction 365 Audrey 04-Mar-18 23:53
Re: Pyramid Construction 342 cladking 05-Mar-18 02:20
Re: Pyramid Construction 359 cladking 05-Mar-18 02:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 346 Steve Clayton 05-Mar-18 19:19
Re: Pyramid Construction 385 Origyptian 05-Mar-18 19:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 338 cladking 05-Mar-18 20:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 344 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 16:14
Re: Pyramid Construction 354 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 19:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 347 cladking 06-Mar-18 19:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 344 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 21:43
Re: Pyramid Construction 316 cladking 06-Mar-18 22:03
Re: Pyramid Construction 347 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 23:07
Re: Pyramid Construction 376 Corpuscles 07-Mar-18 00:01
Re: Pyramid Construction 377 Steve Clayton 07-Mar-18 02:08
Re: Pyramid Construction 341 cladking 04-Mar-18 20:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 362 warleb 11-Mar-18 00:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 360 Steve Clayton 11-Mar-18 00:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 352 warleb 11-Mar-18 00:46
Re: Pyramid Construction 362 warleb 11-Mar-18 00:51
Re: Pyramid Construction 467 Origyptian 11-Mar-18 14:34
Re: Pyramid Construction 410 Thanos5150 25-Mar-18 22:12
Re: Pyramid Construction 351 Jon Ellison 25-Mar-18 22:34
Re: Pyramid Construction 365 Barbelo 25-Mar-18 22:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 367 Thanos5150 25-Mar-18 23:45
Re: Pyramid Construction 438 Barbelo 26-Mar-18 03:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 408 Thanos5150 27-Mar-18 04:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 363 Barbelo 27-Mar-18 10:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 393 Origyptian 27-Mar-18 15:09
Re: Pyramid Construction 386 Thanos5150 27-Mar-18 22:35
Re: Pyramid Construction 358 Thanos5150 27-Mar-18 23:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 400 cladking 28-Mar-18 00:25
Re: Pyramid Construction 335 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 03:59
Re: Pyramid Construction 307 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 03:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 372 Thanos5150 28-Mar-18 05:56
Re: Pyramid Construction 371 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 13:16
Re: Pyramid Construction 309 Steve Clayton 28-Mar-18 17:51
Re: Pyramid Construction 309 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 18:36
Re: Dashur Ancient Harbor 392 Thunderbird 28-Mar-18 20:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 382 Thanos5150 28-Mar-18 20:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 390 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 21:53
Re: Pyramid Construction 358 Thanos5150 29-Mar-18 00:22
Re: Pyramid Construction 349 Origyptian 29-Mar-18 05:01
Re: Pyramid Construction 360 Thanos5150 29-Mar-18 16:52
Re: Pyramid Construction 392 Origyptian 30-Mar-18 14:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 399 Thanos5150 30-Mar-18 16:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 316 Eddie Larry 30-Mar-18 17:12
Re: Pyramid Construction 333 Origyptian 30-Mar-18 17:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 335 Eddie Larry 30-Mar-18 17:47
Re: Pyramid Construction 382 Thanos5150 31-Mar-18 00:46
Re: Pyramid Construction 369 Thanos5150 31-Mar-18 00:01
Where Are The Palaces? 330 Barbelo 31-Mar-18 00:26
Re: Where Are The Palaces? 342 Origyptian 31-Mar-18 04:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 361 Eddie Larry 31-Mar-18 04:45
Re: Pyramid Construction 339 Thanos5150 31-Mar-18 16:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 362 Eddie Larry 31-Mar-18 17:12
Re: Pyramid Construction 374 Origyptian 05-Apr-18 03:04
Re: Pyramid Construction 469 Corpuscles 05-Apr-18 06:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 327 Origyptian 05-Apr-18 15:55
Re: Manetho...David Rohl.....both wrong : ) 362 Thunderbird 05-Apr-18 18:52
Re: Manetho...David Rohl.....both wrong : ) 351 Eddie Larry 05-Apr-18 21:09
Re: Pyramid Construction 371 Corpuscles 05-Apr-18 22:50
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 443 Thunderbird 06-Apr-18 04:50
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 349 Origyptian 06-Apr-18 12:13
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 320 Eddie Larry 06-Apr-18 16:39
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 333 Origyptian 06-Apr-18 18:21
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 327 Eddie Larry 06-Apr-18 19:01
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 321 Thunderbird 06-Apr-18 19:12
Archaeology vs Archaeology 329 Barbelo 06-Apr-18 20:13
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 340 Eddie Larry 06-Apr-18 21:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 421 Steve Clayton 02-Apr-18 23:49
Re: Pyramid Construction 395 Thanos5150 03-Apr-18 17:26
Re: Pyramid Construction 358 Steve Clayton 05-Apr-18 00:39
Constructors’ Physique Assumption 340 Dr. Troglodyte 03-Apr-18 19:08
Re: Constructors’ Physique Assumption 372 Origyptian 04-Apr-18 01:54
Re: Constructors’ Physique Assumption 372 Dr. Troglodyte 04-Apr-18 14:24
Re: Constructors’ Physique Assumption 429 Steve Clayton 04-Apr-18 23:21
Means & Methods Assumptions 342 Dr. Troglodyte 05-Apr-18 15:42
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 340 Origyptian 05-Apr-18 21:13
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 344 Dr. Troglodyte 07-Apr-18 13:45
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 324 cladking 07-Apr-18 14:01
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 346 Origyptian 07-Apr-18 16:42
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 325 Dr. Troglodyte 08-Apr-18 00:05
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 346 Origyptian 06-Apr-18 19:34
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 344 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 03:48
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 386 Origyptian 07-Apr-18 05:53
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 313 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 18:51
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 325 Thanos5150 07-Apr-18 21:36
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 320 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 23:32
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 305 Thanos5150 08-Apr-18 02:50
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 297 Steve Clayton 08-Apr-18 02:57
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 340 Dr. Troglodyte 07-Apr-18 13:58
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions