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eyeofhorus33 Wrote:
-------------------------------------------------------
> Many thanks for the link, Thanos.
>
> I have just finished reading it. Of particular
> interest to me was Reader's explanation of the
> influence of water on the plateau as a means of
> suggesting an earlier date than Khufu for the
> Great Sphinx, where he concludes that:
>
>
Quote

the excavation of the Sphinx was undertaken
> some time before Khufu's quarrying began, when
> rainfall over the more elevated areas of the Giza
> plateau was able to run off from a substantial
> catchment, gathering momentum before finally
> discharging into the Sphinx enclosure.

He makes many interesting points. I like Reader. A worthy source. I saw him on a recent documentary regarding the Sphinx which he was making the case it was older, so nice to see he is an active participant still.

What led me to this article was researching the tombs of Khentkawes and Kai because of their incongruent palace facade exteriors which I was certain must be older. Seek an ye shall find:

Quote

Further evidence that there was Early Dynastic activity at Giza may actually come from within the necropolis itself - particularly the Central Field Quarry area, and the tombs of Khentkawes and Kai (Figure 2).

Both the lower rock-cut element of the Khentkawes tomb and the nearby rock cut mastaba of Kai bear two groups of features that are of considerable interest for my argument.

Firstly, on these two tombs, the upper limestone beds are cut by features of erosion which resemble (but are less intense) than those on the western Sphinx enclosure walls. In my view, such features were formed before the pattern of surface drainage at Giza was disrupted by the large scale 4th Dynasty development of the site which, in relation to these tombs, included extensive quarrying, upslope, within the Central Field Quarry area.

Remarkably, on these two tombs, the features - so suggestive of pre-quarrying or pre-4th Dynasty erosion - are accompanied by a second set of features which also suggest an Early Dynastic origin. On the lower walls of these tombs are the weathered remains of niched- or palace-façade decoration - a typical Early Dynastic architectural device.

The niched-façade features on the tomb of Khentkawes have been recognized by others, [51], [52] and are limited to the lower part of the southern wall of the tomb, facing the Main Wadi (Figure 2). In its completed 4th Dynasty state, the Khentkawes tomb was faced throughout with a limestone casing. This casing will have obscured the rock-cut niches, further suggesting that the niched features pre-date the use of the tomb for the burial of Khentkawes.

In the case of Kai (Figure 12), the remains of the niched-façade extend along both the southern and eastern faces of the superstructure, facing both the main wadi and the Nile valley itself. Whether there is any significance associated with the fact that the niched-façades appear only on the faces of the tombs facing the Nile and its associated former waterway is uncertain.

When compared with the tomb of Khentkawes, the excavated niches on the eastern face of the tomb of Kai are better preserved, extending to a greater height up the external walls of the rock-cut mastaba. This better preservation can be readily explained as the result of protection from degradation provided by a number of subsidiary tombs constructed against the eastern face of the mastaba.

The use of the Early Dynastic niched-façade on the exterior of the tombs of Khentkawes and Kai, differs significantly from the austere architectural style generally adopted at Giza in the 4th Dynasty, with plain façades interrupted only by false doors and individual offering niches. Although their age appears not to have been established during excavation, [53] the tombs built against the eastern face of the mastaba of Kai exhibit this plain, typically Old Kingdom, architectural style (see Figure 12).

Although these apparently Old Kingdom tombs have prevented the degradation of the underlying niches, from close inspection it is apparent that there was a period of time between the excavation of the niches and the later, apparently Old Kingdom construction. Behind the Old Kingdom masonry, the limestone from which the niched panels were cut has a dark patina, a product of weathering (see Figure 13). The preservation of this patina does not coincide with the extent of the overlying masonry. It can only be concluded, therefore, that the niched-façade had weathered considerably before the adjacent Old Kingdom masonry was added.

On the basis of the features of erosion along the upper beds of these two rock cut tombs, the weathering of the niched-façade, and the juxtaposition of apparently Old Kingdom tombs, I would argue that the mastaba of Kai and the lower rock-cut element of the Khentkawes tomb, originally formed part of an Early Dynastic development at Giza - the development which had as its focus the Great Sphinx and associated structures.

The work of both Mortensen and Kromer and the detailed architecture of the tombs of Khentkawes and Kai demonstrate that there is evidence for pre-4th Dynasty activity at Giza. What is noteworthy is that the period of time indicated by this evidence is consistent with the time-scales that I have established on the basis of other quite independent considerations (such as the use of stone masonry in Ancient Egypt).

Happy Holidays to you as well Matt.



Edited 2 time(s). Last edit at 24-Dec-16 19:32 by Thanos5150.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
Pyramid Construction 5949 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 06:05
Re: Pyramid Construction & Grand Gallery 740 M. J. Thomas 11-Dec-16 11:10
Re: Pyramid Construction & Grand Gallery 678 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 17:28
Re: Pyramid Construction & Grand Gallery 618 cladking 11-Dec-16 19:03
Re: Pyramid Construction 620 Jon Ellison 11-Dec-16 12:49
Re: Pyramid Construction 573 cladking 11-Dec-16 14:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 516 DScribr 11-Dec-16 14:49
Re: Pyramid Construction 582 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 18:03
Re: Pyramid Construction 536 Lee McGiffen 16-Dec-16 10:43
Re: Pyramid Construction 500 DUNE 16-Dec-16 12:08
Re: Pyramid Construction 456 DUNE 16-Dec-16 14:10
Re: Pyramid Construction 566 cladking 11-Dec-16 14:57
Re: Pyramid Construction 502 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 17:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 586 cladking 11-Dec-16 19:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 545 Thanos5150 11-Dec-16 17:43
Re: Pyramid Construction 524 sfbey 11-Dec-16 17:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 535 DScribr 11-Dec-16 21:20
Re: Pyramid Construction 387 Warwick 11-Dec-16 21:25
Re: Pyramid Construction 533 DScribr 11-Dec-16 22:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 465 Warwick 11-Dec-16 20:56
Block Construction 501 DScribr 11-Dec-16 21:23
Re: Block Construction 522 Warwick 11-Dec-16 21:35
Re: Block Construction 523 randompHactor 11-Dec-16 21:53
Re: Block Construction 486 DScribr 11-Dec-16 22:59
Re: Pyramid Construction 529 loveritas 11-Dec-16 22:16
Re: Pyramid Construction 504 DScribr 11-Dec-16 23:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 510 loveritas 12-Dec-16 01:08
Re: Pyramid Construction 511 DScribr 12-Dec-16 14:31
More Sand 527 loveritas 12-Dec-16 22:11
Re: More Sand 510 cladking 12-Dec-16 23:19
Re: More Sand 524 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 00:15
Re: More Sand 490 cladking 13-Dec-16 00:25
Re: More Sand 483 DScribr 13-Dec-16 01:03
Re: More Sand 499 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 01:19
Where is the Sand 535 DScribr 13-Dec-16 01:00
Re: Where is the Sand 499 cladking 13-Dec-16 02:15
Re: Where is the Sand 490 DScribr 13-Dec-16 03:34
Re: More Sand 550 Audrey 13-Dec-16 03:50
Re: More Sand 504 cladking 13-Dec-16 04:43
Re: More Sand 549 Audrey 13-Dec-16 04:55
Re: More Sand 586 Jon Ellison 13-Dec-16 11:40
Re: More Sand 588 Audrey 14-Dec-16 02:43
Re: More Sand 607 Jon Ellison 14-Dec-16 10:39
Re: More Sand 502 Audrey 15-Dec-16 01:19
Re: More Sand 539 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 03:03
Re: More Sand 461 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 03:19
Re: More Sand 541 Audrey 15-Dec-16 05:40
Re: More Sand 456 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 09:50
Re: More Sand 444 DUNE 15-Dec-16 11:35
Re: More Sand 459 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 12:38
Re: More Sand 479 Audrey 16-Dec-16 06:10
Re: More Sand 494 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 14:52
Re: More Sand 471 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 14:33
Re: More Sand 435 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 15:17
Re: More Sand 462 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 15:35
Re: More Sand 445 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 15:45
Re: More Sand 497 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 16:02
Re: More Sand 461 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 16:25
Re: More Sand 406 DUNE 15-Dec-16 17:00
Re: More Sand 351 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 17:20
Re: More Sand 483 DUNE 15-Dec-16 17:38
Re: More Sand 467 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 17:48
Re: More Sand 504 Audrey 16-Dec-16 06:27
Re: More Sand 451 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 14:41
Re: More Sand 527 DUNE 16-Dec-16 15:38
Re: More Sand 391 Thanos5150 16-Dec-16 17:02
Re: More Sand 526 DUNE 16-Dec-16 17:15
Re: More Sand 478 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 19:12
Re: More Sand 477 DUNE 16-Dec-16 20:04
Re: More Sand 514 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 17:01
Re: More Sand 390 Jon Ellison 15-Dec-16 17:33
Chisel Marks Suggest..... 442 DScribr 15-Dec-16 15:20
Re: Chisel Marks Suggest..... 510 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 15:41
Re: Chisel Marks Suggest..... 447 DScribr 15-Dec-16 15:49
Re: More Sand 429 Audrey 16-Dec-16 06:17
Re: More Sand 481 Jon Ellison 14-Dec-16 11:43
Popular Posters 540 loveritas 14-Dec-16 10:57
Re: Popular Posters 566 M. J. Thomas 14-Dec-16 13:52
Re: Popular Posters 473 DScribr 14-Dec-16 15:18
Presumption Correction 575 loveritas 13-Dec-16 06:35
Re: Presumption Correction 536 Audrey 13-Dec-16 06:38
Re: More Sand 565 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 07:17
Re: More Sand 441 cladking 13-Dec-16 14:46
Re: More Sand 534 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 18:07
Re: More Sand 438 Thanos5150 13-Dec-16 19:07
Re: More Sand 490 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:19
Re: More Sand 479 Thanos5150 14-Dec-16 02:34
Re: More Sand 507 cladking 14-Dec-16 03:41
Re: More Sand 450 Thanos5150 15-Dec-16 17:39
Re: More Sand 490 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:16
Re: More Sand 465 Audrey 14-Dec-16 03:31
GOT Sand??? 512 DScribr 14-Dec-16 04:06
Re: GOT Sand??? 501 Audrey 14-Dec-16 04:36
Re: GOT brains??? 498 DScribr 14-Dec-16 15:16
Re: GOT Sand??? 548 cladking 14-Dec-16 04:51
Who Ya' Gonna Call? 515 cladking 17-Dec-16 17:51
Re: More Sand 391 loveritas 13-Dec-16 01:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 434 Steve Clayton 11-Dec-16 23:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 443 Sirius7237 12-Dec-16 00:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 483 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 01:03
Re: Pyramid Construction 475 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 01:19
Re: Pyramid Construction 477 Sirius7237 12-Dec-16 05:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 641 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 06:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 489 Sirius7237 13-Dec-16 23:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 450 Thanos5150 14-Dec-16 19:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 493 M. J. Thomas 12-Dec-16 11:52
Re: Pyramid Construction 467 Sirius7237 12-Dec-16 17:24
Re: Pyramid Construction 485 M. J. Thomas 13-Dec-16 01:22
Re: Pyramid Construction 475 DScribr 13-Dec-16 03:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 536 Steve Clayton 13-Dec-16 18:13
Re: Pyramid Construction 460 Jon Ellison 13-Dec-16 18:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 511 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 499 Steve Clayton 13-Dec-16 23:22
Re: Pyramid Construction 460 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:27
Re: Pyramid Construction 473 Sirius7237 13-Dec-16 23:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 487 Steve Clayton 14-Dec-16 17:31
Houdin's most critical error 533 Warwick 14-Dec-16 18:17
Re: Houdin's most critical error 447 Steve Clayton 14-Dec-16 18:52
Re: Houdin's most critical error 516 Warwick 14-Dec-16 19:14
Re: Houdin's most critical error 443 Origyptian 15-Dec-16 21:07
the $64,000.00 Question 481 Warwick 16-Dec-16 19:35
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 441 DScribr 16-Dec-16 21:03
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 482 Warwick 16-Dec-16 22:03
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 498 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 22:23
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 465 Warwick 16-Dec-16 22:43
Re: the $64,000.00 Question 478 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 23:07
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 476 M. J. Thomas 18-Dec-16 11:24
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 497 DUNE 18-Dec-16 12:14
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 462 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 17:05
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 532 DUNE 18-Dec-16 17:51
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 438 Origyptian 19-Dec-16 01:47
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 393 Jon Ellison 19-Dec-16 19:41
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 432 DUNE 19-Dec-16 21:29
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 379 Jon Ellison 19-Dec-16 22:47
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 474 DUNE 19-Dec-16 23:21
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 403 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 11:56
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 456 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 14:53
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 425 cladking 18-Dec-16 16:17
Where are the Taxonomies? 398 cladking 18-Dec-16 16:26
Re: Where are the Taxonomies? 433 cladking 18-Dec-16 16:33
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 402 M. J. Thomas 18-Dec-16 16:26
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 449 cladking 18-Dec-16 16:43
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 450 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 16:58
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 450 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 16:44
Re: the $64,000.00 Question . . . PLUS 347 M. J. Thomas 18-Dec-16 17:33
In A Cemetery 440 DScribr 18-Dec-16 20:06
Re: In A Cemetery 433 cladking 18-Dec-16 20:11
Re: In A Cemetery 436 DScribr 18-Dec-16 22:59
Re: In A Cemetery 439 cladking 19-Dec-16 00:52
Re: In A Cemetery 449 DScribr 19-Dec-16 01:32
Re: In A Cemetery 364 Origyptian 19-Dec-16 01:52
Re: In A Cemetery 456 DScribr 19-Dec-16 03:54
Re: In A Cemetery 502 Thanos5150 19-Dec-16 04:44
Re: In A Cemetery 415 M. J. Thomas 19-Dec-16 17:53
Re: In A Cemetery 421 cladking 19-Dec-16 17:59
Re: In A Cemetery 431 Origyptian 19-Dec-16 18:13
Yes, Buried In A Cemetery 421 DScribr 20-Dec-16 03:50
Re: Yes, Buried In A Cemetery 436 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 15:34
Re: In A Cemetery 459 M. J. Thomas 20-Dec-16 11:23
Re: In A Cemetery 406 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 11:28
Re: In A Cemetery 414 M. J. Thomas 20-Dec-16 11:52
Re: In A Cemetery 381 Corpuscles 20-Dec-16 11:58
Re: In A Cemetery 364 DUNE 20-Dec-16 15:06
Re: In A Cemetery 419 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 17:42
Re: In A Cemetery 445 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 15:49
Re: In A Cemetery 399 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 16:31
Re: In A Cemetery 358 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 16:49
Re: In A Cemetery 422 Jon Ellison 20-Dec-16 17:11
Re: In A Cemetery 403 cladking 20-Dec-16 19:46
Re: In A Cemetery 399 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 20:51
Re: In A Cemetery 416 Warwick 20-Dec-16 20:56
Re: In A Cemetery 465 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 21:09
Re: In A Cemetery 399 Warwick 20-Dec-16 21:15
Re: In A Cemetery 376 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 21:42
Re: In A Cemetery 392 Warwick 21-Dec-16 23:01
Re: In A Cemetery 460 Origyptian 22-Dec-16 05:28
Re: In A Cemetery 368 cladking 20-Dec-16 21:07
Re: Why was the Egyptologist so depressed? 429 Sirius7237 21-Dec-16 02:58
He just wasn't getting enough FUNicular... 347 cladking 21-Dec-16 20:27
Re: He just wasn't getting enough FUNicular... 325 Warwick 21-Dec-16 21:35
Re: In A Cemetery 474 Thanos5150 20-Dec-16 21:44
Re: In A Cemetery 339 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 22:13
Re: In A Cemetery 452 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 00:02
Re: In A Cemetery 443 Origyptian 21-Dec-16 01:24
Re: In A Cemetery 467 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 01:55
Re: In A Cemetery 474 Audrey 21-Dec-16 02:52
Enough et als to build a pyramid. 416 cladking 21-Dec-16 03:06
Re: In A Cemetery 478 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 03:15
Re: In A Cemetery 418 Audrey 21-Dec-16 04:50
Re: In A Cemetery 466 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 21:02
sidebar 461 Warwick 21-Dec-16 21:16
Re: In A Cemetery 507 Audrey 22-Dec-16 02:01
Re: In A Cemetery 482 eyeofhorus33 21-Dec-16 07:16
Re: In A Cemetery 434 Corpuscles 21-Dec-16 12:00
Re: In A Cemetery 350 M. J. Thomas 21-Dec-16 13:39
Re: In A Cemetery 378 eyeofhorus33 21-Dec-16 13:54
Re: In A Cemetery 506 DUNE 21-Dec-16 15:55
Re: In A Cemetery 467 Thunderbird 21-Dec-16 17:48
Re: In A Cemetery 427 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 22:33
Re: In A Cemetery 527 Martin Stower 21-Dec-16 22:02
Re: In A Cemetery 423 Warwick 21-Dec-16 22:11
Re: In A Cemetery 426 Audrey 21-Dec-16 02:49
Re: In A Cemetery 427 M. J. Thomas 21-Dec-16 06:02
Re: In A Cemetery 438 cladking 21-Dec-16 14:44
Re: In A Cemetery 201 Steve Clayton 30-Mar-18 20:42
Re: In A Cemetery 345 DScribr 19-Dec-16 23:06
Re: Pyramid Construction 483 Sirius7237 14-Dec-16 23:27
Re: Pyramid Construction 517 Steve Clayton 15-Dec-16 02:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 418 Sirius7237 15-Dec-16 03:12
Re: Pyramid Construction 491 Sirius7237 15-Dec-16 04:25
Re: Pyramid Construction 449 Steve Clayton 15-Dec-16 13:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 473 Sirius7237 15-Dec-16 15:35
Animal Fat for Lube?!? 474 DScribr 15-Dec-16 15:48
Re: Animal Fat for Lube?!? 449 Steve Clayton 15-Dec-16 17:26
Re: Animal Fat reduces Friction-That's A Fact! 473 DScribr 15-Dec-16 20:13
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 450 Sirius7237 17-Dec-16 22:09
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 473 Steve Clayton 19-Dec-16 02:03
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 620 Sirius7237 19-Dec-16 18:42
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 413 Steve Clayton 20-Dec-16 17:56
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 336 Sirius7237 21-Dec-16 02:56
Re: Counterweights and counterthoughts 439 Steve Clayton 21-Dec-16 18:04
Re: Pyramid Construction 479 cladking 12-Dec-16 14:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 462 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 15:29
Re: Pyramid Construction 447 cladking 12-Dec-16 15:56
Re: Pyramid Construction 455 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 01:18
Re: Pyramid Construction 473 Sirius7237 12-Dec-16 05:57
Re: Pyramid Construction 448 cladking 12-Dec-16 02:46
Re: Pyramid Construction 434 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 01:26
Re: Accretion Layers 420 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 02:14
Re: G3 Exposed 562 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 03:53
Re: G3 Exposed 507 loveritas 12-Dec-16 04:44
Re: G3 Exposed 457 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 05:15
Re: G3 Exposed 603 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 05:39
Re: G3 Exposed 504 loveritas 12-Dec-16 06:17
Re: G3 Exposed 405 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 15:40
Re: G3 Exposed 447 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 16:40
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 549 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 04:02
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 470 loveritas 12-Dec-16 05:12
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 486 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 05:21
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 469 loveritas 12-Dec-16 05:38
Re: Detail of Queen's Pyramids 594 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 06:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 483 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 14:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 404 Thanos5150 12-Dec-16 16:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 432 DScribr 12-Dec-16 17:28
Re: Pyramid Construction 458 Warwick 12-Dec-16 18:01
Re: Pyramid Construction 416 cladking 12-Dec-16 18:32
Re: Pyramid Construction 443 Warwick 12-Dec-16 18:53
Re: Pyramid Construction 473 cladking 12-Dec-16 19:18
Re: Pyramid Construction 447 Warwick 12-Dec-16 19:46
Re: Pyramid Construction 395 cladking 12-Dec-16 20:43
Re: Pyramid Construction 433 Warwick 13-Dec-16 19:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 425 cladking 13-Dec-16 20:29
NO 395 Warwick 13-Dec-16 21:54
Re: Pyramid Construction 439 cladking 13-Dec-16 21:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 461 Warwick 14-Dec-16 18:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 454 cladking 14-Dec-16 18:52
While Egyptology fiddles... 418 cladking 14-Dec-16 19:32
Re: While Egyptology fiddles... 471 Warwick 16-Dec-16 19:48
Re: While Egyptology fiddles... 408 cladking 16-Dec-16 20:22
Re: While Egyptology fiddles... 441 Warwick 16-Dec-16 22:48
Re: While Egyptology fiddles... 461 cladking 16-Dec-16 23:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 481 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 20:45
Re: Pyramid Construction 487 cladking 12-Dec-16 21:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 375 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 22:26
Re: Pyramid Construction 440 cladking 12-Dec-16 23:13
Mind-reading a means of Sentence (Re)Construction 505 DScribr 13-Dec-16 01:06
Re: Mind-reading a means of Sentence (Re)Construction 452 cladking 13-Dec-16 02:27
Re: Mind-reading a means of Sentence (Re)Construction-Webster's is not...... 437 DScribr 13-Dec-16 03:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 401 Steve Clayton 14-Dec-16 19:35
Re: Pyramid Construction 436 cladking 14-Dec-16 19:40
Re: Pyramid Construction 425 Warwick 14-Dec-16 20:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 435 cladking 14-Dec-16 20:40
Re: Pyramid Construction 425 Audrey 15-Dec-16 01:39
Re: Pyramid Construction 481 cladking 15-Dec-16 01:48
correction 332 Warwick 16-Dec-16 19:30
Re: correction 420 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 19:49
Re: correction 399 Warwick 16-Dec-16 20:05
Re: correction 378 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 20:27
Re: correction 390 Warwick 16-Dec-16 22:10
Re: correction 416 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 22:50
NONE 290 DScribr 16-Dec-16 22:59
Re: correction 400 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 22:53
Re: 21st Century Westerner v 4th Dyn. Ancient Egyptian 417 M. J. Thomas 18-Dec-16 23:28
Re: correction 445 Martin Stower 22-Dec-16 16:20
Re: correction 354 DocKnowles 22-Dec-16 20:22
Re: correction 408 Martin Stower 22-Dec-16 21:00
Re: correction 444 DocKnowles 23-Dec-16 06:43
Re: correction 383 eyeofhorus33 23-Dec-16 07:43
Re: correction 381 DocKnowles 23-Dec-16 10:44
Re: correction 366 eyeofhorus33 23-Dec-16 12:06
Re: correction 393 cladking 23-Dec-16 14:26
Re: correction 389 eyeofhorus33 23-Dec-16 15:41
Re: correction 413 cladking 23-Dec-16 17:13
Re: correction 317 Origyptian 23-Dec-16 17:16
Re: correction 291 cladking 23-Dec-16 17:31
Re: correction 439 Thanos5150 23-Dec-16 17:39
Re: correction 415 eyeofhorus33 24-Dec-16 08:13
Re: correction 404 cladking 24-Dec-16 15:18
Re: correction 418 eyeofhorus33 24-Dec-16 16:49
Re: correction 362 cladking 24-Dec-16 17:24
Re: correction 344 Thanos5150 24-Dec-16 16:52
Re: correction 344 Origyptian 24-Dec-16 18:12
Re: correction 404 Martin Stower 24-Dec-16 23:42
Re: correction 424 Thanos5150 25-Dec-16 00:51
Re: correction 407 Thanos5150 25-Dec-16 01:03
Re: correction 521 DUNE 27-Dec-16 18:09
Re: correction 488 DUNE 30-Dec-16 21:16
Re: correction 437 Thanos5150 30-Dec-16 23:58
Re: correction 586 eyeofhorus33 31-Dec-16 07:38
Re: correction 356 Martin Stower 23-Dec-16 14:44
Re: correction 343 DocKnowles 23-Dec-16 20:39
Re: correction 361 Martin Stower 23-Dec-16 22:02
Re: correction 375 Thanos5150 16-Dec-16 21:42
Re: correction 369 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 22:24
Re: correction 507 Origyptian 16-Dec-16 22:38
Re: correction 388 Jon Ellison 16-Dec-16 23:00
Re: correction 490 Thanos5150 16-Dec-16 23:32
Re: correction 368 Jon Ellison 17-Dec-16 00:46
Re: correction 406 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 05:28
Re: correction 345 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 06:02
Re: correction 314 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 06:31
Re: correction 373 Audrey 17-Dec-16 07:07
Re: correction 423 DUNE 17-Dec-16 11:16
Re: correction 354 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 14:39
Re: correction 440 DUNE 17-Dec-16 16:48
Re: correction 402 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 17:00
Block Removal 418 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:25
Re: correction 435 Jon Ellison 17-Dec-16 12:36
Re: correction 366 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 15:08
Re: correction 441 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 13:56
Egypto-illogic. 311 cladking 17-Dec-16 15:32
Re: Egypto-illogic. 372 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 16:41
Ori-illogic. 417 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:12
Re: Egypto-illogic. 403 cladking 17-Dec-16 17:38
Got Shovels? 375 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:30
Reality-what a concept 415 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:09
Re: correction 290 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 18:26
Re: correction 397 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 19:14
Re: correction 368 cladking 17-Dec-16 19:37
Re: correction 359 Audrey 17-Dec-16 20:14
Modern Gods! 330 cladking 17-Dec-16 20:55
Re: correction 356 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 22:27
Birds Of A Feather 381 DScribr 17-Dec-16 22:30
Re: correction 347 Origyptian 18-Dec-16 00:37
Re: correction 388 Audrey 18-Dec-16 01:35
Re: correction 337 Thanos5150 18-Dec-16 02:29
Re: correction 343 Audrey 18-Dec-16 01:21
Re: correction 414 cladking 18-Dec-16 02:03
Re: correction 242 Warwick 20-Dec-16 20:45
Re: correction 375 cladking 20-Dec-16 21:28
Re: correction 432 Thanos5150 17-Dec-16 06:50
Re: correction 399 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 14:45
"We" have no objective reason to believe..... 415 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:16
Re: correction 313 cladking 17-Dec-16 14:51
Post o' the week! 375 DScribr 17-Dec-16 16:04
Re: Post o' the week! 380 cladking 17-Dec-16 16:11
Same Old Logic 403 DScribr 17-Dec-16 17:00
Re: correction 375 Warwick 20-Dec-16 20:33
Re: correction 410 Origyptian 17-Dec-16 05:43
Not cropped, 'enhanced.' 408 DScribr 17-Dec-16 02:10
Re: correction 395 Audrey 17-Dec-16 03:45
Re: correction 308 Audrey 17-Dec-16 03:40
Re: correction 412 Warwick 20-Dec-16 20:28
Re: correction 324 cladking 20-Dec-16 21:37
Re: correction 410 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 22:08
Re: correction 395 Origyptian 20-Dec-16 21:47
Ducks in a barrel 366 Warwick 21-Dec-16 20:50
Re: Ducks in a barrel 427 Thanos5150 21-Dec-16 21:15
Re: Ducks in a barrel 533 Origyptian 22-Dec-16 05:15
Re: correction 432 Martin Stower 22-Dec-16 01:14
Re: correction 415 Audrey 21-Dec-16 01:54
Good Grief!!! 420 Warwick 21-Dec-16 20:32
Re: Good Grief!!! 422 Origyptian 21-Dec-16 23:04
Clueless 447 eyeofhorus33 21-Dec-16 23:24
Re: Clueless 357 Audrey 22-Dec-16 02:08
Re: Good Grief!!! 444 Martin Stower 21-Dec-16 23:45
Re: Pyramid Construction 469 Steve Clayton 15-Dec-16 02:59
Re: Pyramid Construction 421 cladking 15-Dec-16 04:00
The AE HAD Air Conditioning!!! 436 DScribr 15-Dec-16 04:54
Re: The AE HAD Air Conditioning!!! 425 cladking 15-Dec-16 05:15
Re: The AE HAD Air Conditioning!!! 421 DScribr 15-Dec-16 15:22
Re: The AE HAD Air Conditioning!!! 332 cladking 15-Dec-16 17:08
thank you for the opportunity 459 Warwick 13-Dec-16 19:35
Re: Pyramid Construction 447 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 20:31
It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 458 cladking 12-Dec-16 21:03
Re: It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 456 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 22:32
Re: It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 477 cladking 12-Dec-16 22:58
Re: It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 494 Steve Clayton 13-Dec-16 00:09
Re: It wasn't hard, it was funicular! 479 cladking 13-Dec-16 00:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 510 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 20:24
Re: Pyramid Construction 505 Steve Clayton 12-Dec-16 19:20
Re: Pyramid Construction 419 DocKnowles 18-Dec-16 09:53
Re: Pyramid Construction 323 Thanos5150 02-Mar-18 03:04
Re: Pyramid Construction 205 Origyptian 02-Mar-18 17:13
Re: Pyramid Construction 236 Steve Clayton 02-Mar-18 17:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 224 Steve Clayton 02-Mar-18 23:13
Re: Pyramid Construction 201 Origyptian 03-Mar-18 01:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 243 Audrey 03-Mar-18 03:47
Re: Pyramid Construction 242 cladking 03-Mar-18 04:20
Re: Pyramid Construction 283 Audrey 03-Mar-18 07:07
Re: Pyramid Construction 220 cladking 03-Mar-18 14:44
Re: Pyramid Construction 201 Audrey 04-Mar-18 21:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 194 cladking 04-Mar-18 23:10
Re: Pyramid Construction 209 Audrey 05-Mar-18 00:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 178 cladking 05-Mar-18 04:51
Re: Pyramid Construction 197 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 03:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 256 Origyptian 03-Mar-18 13:04
Re: Pyramid Construction 205 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 16:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 204 Origyptian 04-Mar-18 04:09
Re: Pyramid Construction 219 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 21:06
Re: Pyramid Construction 245 Origyptian 04-Mar-18 04:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 212 Thanos5150 03-Mar-18 17:11
Re: Pyramid Construction 209 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 17:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 189 cladking 03-Mar-18 19:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 207 Thanos5150 03-Mar-18 22:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 195 Audrey 03-Mar-18 18:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 198 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 20:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 201 Audrey 04-Mar-18 22:10
Re: Pyramid Construction 190 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 22:50
Re: Pyramid Construction 194 cladking 04-Mar-18 23:22
Re: Pyramid Construction 184 Thanos5150 03-Mar-18 21:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 222 Steve Clayton 03-Mar-18 23:35
Re: Pyramid Construction 195 Thanos5150 04-Mar-18 16:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 216 Audrey 04-Mar-18 21:47
Re: Pyramid Construction 198 DUNE 04-Mar-18 22:07
Re: Pyramid Construction 201 Thanos5150 05-Mar-18 02:16
Re: Pyramid Construction 206 Warwick 05-Mar-18 16:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 239 cladking 05-Mar-18 05:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 218 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 02:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 208 Warwick 05-Mar-18 16:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 211 Thanos5150 05-Mar-18 18:01
Re: Pyramid Construction 231 Origyptian 05-Mar-18 18:30
Re: Pyramid Construction 230 Warwick 06-Mar-18 00:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 213 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 04:34
Re: Pyramid Construction 236 Warwick 06-Mar-18 04:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 223 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 14:33
Riposte 221 Warwick 06-Mar-18 16:27
Re: Riposte 211 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 16:37
Re: Riposte 195 Warwick 06-Mar-18 16:54
Re: Riposte 215 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 17:15
Re: Riposte 196 Warwick 06-Mar-18 19:18
Re: Riposte 176 Origyptian 06-Mar-18 19:30
coup de grace 211 Warwick 06-Mar-18 20:06
Re: Pyramid Construction 206 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 17:37
Re: Pyramid Construction 192 cladking 04-Mar-18 17:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 215 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 18:51
Re: Pyramid Construction 212 DUNE 04-Mar-18 19:06
Re: Pyramid Construction 209 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 20:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 204 cladking 04-Mar-18 21:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 234 Origyptian 04-Mar-18 20:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 227 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 20:49
Re: Pyramid Construction 193 Origyptian 04-Mar-18 21:28
Re: Pyramid Construction 211 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 22:19
Re: Pyramid Construction 197 Origyptian 05-Mar-18 02:13
Re: Pyramid Construction 215 cladking 04-Mar-18 20:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 225 Steve Clayton 04-Mar-18 23:16
Re: Pyramid Construction 212 Audrey 04-Mar-18 23:53
Re: Pyramid Construction 209 cladking 05-Mar-18 02:20
Re: Pyramid Construction 218 cladking 05-Mar-18 02:17
Re: Pyramid Construction 206 Steve Clayton 05-Mar-18 19:19
Re: Pyramid Construction 211 Origyptian 05-Mar-18 19:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 219 cladking 05-Mar-18 20:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 212 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 16:14
Re: Pyramid Construction 210 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 19:02
Re: Pyramid Construction 203 cladking 06-Mar-18 19:58
Re: Pyramid Construction 199 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 21:43
Re: Pyramid Construction 197 cladking 06-Mar-18 22:03
Re: Pyramid Construction 208 Steve Clayton 06-Mar-18 23:07
Re: Pyramid Construction 210 Corpuscles 07-Mar-18 00:01
Re: Pyramid Construction 244 Steve Clayton 07-Mar-18 02:08
Re: Pyramid Construction 206 cladking 04-Mar-18 20:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 226 warleb 11-Mar-18 00:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 204 Steve Clayton 11-Mar-18 00:33
Re: Pyramid Construction 211 warleb 11-Mar-18 00:46
Re: Pyramid Construction 235 warleb 11-Mar-18 00:51
Re: Pyramid Construction 292 Origyptian 11-Mar-18 14:34
Re: Pyramid Construction 243 Thanos5150 25-Mar-18 22:12
Re: Pyramid Construction 202 Jon Ellison 25-Mar-18 22:34
Re: Pyramid Construction 224 Barbelo 25-Mar-18 22:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 227 Thanos5150 25-Mar-18 23:45
Re: Pyramid Construction 260 Barbelo 26-Mar-18 03:55
Re: Pyramid Construction 234 Thanos5150 27-Mar-18 04:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 219 Barbelo 27-Mar-18 10:48
Re: Pyramid Construction 226 Origyptian 27-Mar-18 15:09
Re: Pyramid Construction 238 Thanos5150 27-Mar-18 22:35
Re: Pyramid Construction 217 Thanos5150 27-Mar-18 23:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 231 cladking 28-Mar-18 00:25
Re: Pyramid Construction 192 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 03:59
Re: Pyramid Construction 190 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 03:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 236 Thanos5150 28-Mar-18 05:56
Re: Pyramid Construction 212 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 13:16
Re: Pyramid Construction 185 Steve Clayton 28-Mar-18 17:51
Re: Pyramid Construction 187 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 18:36
Re: Dashur Ancient Harbor 236 Thunderbird 28-Mar-18 20:36
Re: Pyramid Construction 212 Thanos5150 28-Mar-18 20:41
Re: Pyramid Construction 220 Origyptian 28-Mar-18 21:53
Re: Pyramid Construction 205 Thanos5150 29-Mar-18 00:22
Re: Pyramid Construction 224 Origyptian 29-Mar-18 05:01
Re: Pyramid Construction 237 Thanos5150 29-Mar-18 16:52
Re: Pyramid Construction 219 Origyptian 30-Mar-18 14:05
Re: Pyramid Construction 215 Thanos5150 30-Mar-18 16:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 194 Eddie Larry 30-Mar-18 17:12
Re: Pyramid Construction 218 Origyptian 30-Mar-18 17:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 208 Eddie Larry 30-Mar-18 17:47
Re: Pyramid Construction 222 Thanos5150 31-Mar-18 00:46
Re: Pyramid Construction 220 Thanos5150 31-Mar-18 00:01
Where Are The Palaces? 201 Barbelo 31-Mar-18 00:26
Re: Where Are The Palaces? 215 Origyptian 31-Mar-18 04:38
Re: Pyramid Construction 228 Eddie Larry 31-Mar-18 04:45
Re: Pyramid Construction 204 Thanos5150 31-Mar-18 16:42
Re: Pyramid Construction 220 Eddie Larry 31-Mar-18 17:12
Re: Pyramid Construction 210 Origyptian 05-Apr-18 03:04
Re: Pyramid Construction 285 Corpuscles 05-Apr-18 06:00
Re: Pyramid Construction 183 Origyptian 05-Apr-18 15:55
Re: Manetho...David Rohl.....both wrong : ) 230 Thunderbird 05-Apr-18 18:52
Re: Manetho...David Rohl.....both wrong : ) 207 Eddie Larry 05-Apr-18 21:09
Re: Pyramid Construction 233 Corpuscles 05-Apr-18 22:50
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 252 Thunderbird 06-Apr-18 04:50
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 204 Origyptian 06-Apr-18 12:13
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 196 Eddie Larry 06-Apr-18 16:39
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 219 Origyptian 06-Apr-18 18:21
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 192 Eddie Larry 06-Apr-18 19:01
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 201 Thunderbird 06-Apr-18 19:12
Archaeology vs Archaeology 190 Barbelo 06-Apr-18 20:13
Re: Peer Review and the Cat who is never wrong : ) 219 Eddie Larry 06-Apr-18 21:15
Re: Pyramid Construction 251 Steve Clayton 02-Apr-18 23:49
Re: Pyramid Construction 238 Thanos5150 03-Apr-18 17:26
Re: Pyramid Construction 202 Steve Clayton 05-Apr-18 00:39
Constructors’ Physique Assumption 213 Dr. Troglodyte 03-Apr-18 19:08
Re: Constructors’ Physique Assumption 226 Origyptian 04-Apr-18 01:54
Re: Constructors’ Physique Assumption 254 Dr. Troglodyte 04-Apr-18 14:24
Re: Constructors’ Physique Assumption 219 Steve Clayton 04-Apr-18 23:21
Means & Methods Assumptions 218 Dr. Troglodyte 05-Apr-18 15:42
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 212 Origyptian 05-Apr-18 21:13
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 203 Dr. Troglodyte 07-Apr-18 13:45
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 195 cladking 07-Apr-18 14:01
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 212 Origyptian 07-Apr-18 16:42
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 203 Dr. Troglodyte 08-Apr-18 00:05
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 212 Origyptian 06-Apr-18 19:34
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 207 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 03:48
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 234 Origyptian 07-Apr-18 05:53
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 175 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 18:51
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 190 Thanos5150 07-Apr-18 21:36
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 175 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 23:32
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 172 Thanos5150 08-Apr-18 02:50
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 171 Steve Clayton 08-Apr-18 02:57
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 205 Dr. Troglodyte 07-Apr-18 13:58
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 168 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 18:07
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 175 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 18:22
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 212 Origyptian 07-Apr-18 19:15
Re: Means & Methods Assumptions 196 Steve Clayton 07-Apr-18 22:17