By B. Andrew McBride
One of the greatest transmitters of particular forms of knowledge is The Great Pyramid of Egypt, or Khufu's/Cheop's Pyramid as we have come to know it. The following identifies this knowledge in a way that was mostly found and published in the analysis, Opus Mundialis Rostau, but is now extended to include an exciting - and what will be controversial - fact. As such, I will have to go through the analysis in small detail so as to set the scene; although I must state that the pyramid is a result of understandings by our ancients, brought together in one form that seemingly will last for eternity, and creates more questions than we will know how to deal with.
We cannot be sure how our measures began but we are aware of the different kinds of measures we have today with such as inches, miles, degrees and time lengths. We can view the horizons and expanse of the sky and see the turning of Earth in its orbit about the Sun, and acknowledge the locations of the Sun upon the horizon during the course of the year. We can measure the year and the day, and see by the position of the Sun when it occupies certain moments and either casts its shadow or holds its position, and build a knowledge of solstices, equinoxes, seasons, dawns, sunsets and middays.
Against the stars, this turning of Earth certainly began a new course of understanding of what math and time could do: measure things and know them with certainty by watching this turning and the background stars. We could also define a great length of time we call Precession of the Equinoxes which seemingly makes the stars rise and fall against the horizon during a period of some 26,000 years, with the Sun seemingly moving across the sky in front of the stars, occupying a section of sky that has come down to us as constellations which splits the sky up into 30 degree sections.
For those in the northern hemisphere, the winter solstice became a time for celebration that the year would slowly warm up again after holding a stagnant position for some three days. We cannot be sure when lengths of time became known, but against the stars, other kinds of measures were being made.
Yes, Precession is a long period of time, and only by watching for such a long period and tracking what is seen could it be known about and understood. The tilt of Earth, which gives us our seasons throughout the year, shows a slow wobble through these many millennia, and it is this which seemingly makes the stars rise and fall against the horizon and in the sky.
We cannot be sure when measures were divided up into sections of time, distance and angle, but certainly it was found that there were correlations between these individual amounts, and it was found that the greater parts of them could be divided up into smaller parts. Imagine for a moment a circle of 360º that can be drawn on a piece of paper: it is somewhat difficult to divide this circle into smaller parts of a degree unless the circle is drawn larger and increments can be made within the degrees; draw that circle larger still and even smaller increments can be made. Against the horizon, the circle's degrees could become not just minutes and arc-seconds but parts of arc-seconds.
This ability must surely have arisen from breaking down the length of time in a day and measuring the stars tracking across the sky as they arose above one horizon and set below the other horizon, taking a 'moment' to smaller 'moments'. While it may be a little difficult to imagine, a number sequence based upon 60 comes from this, which may have its easier components of 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12 and 15 in its hierarchy. Certainly we can have one circle, and therefore two halves, and still divide these sections into smaller parts until we have manageable sections that are easily defined against the whole. For an encompassing figure that can be used across different measures, it appears that 60 satisfied the need to identify something that crossed the boundaries of measure in time, distance and angle.
We are aware of the degrees, minutes and arc-seconds in a circle, totalling 1,296,000 seconds of arc; we are aware of the seconds, minutes and hours in a day, totalling 86,400 seconds of time; and we are aware of the circumference of Earth in Nautical Miles: 21,600 or thereabouts. It is actually 21,638.77 as determined around the equator, but it is a simple thing to acknowledge that an exact 21,600 was the determination by our ancients. These numbers break down to 60 from there being 86,400 x 15 = 1,296,000; and 21,600 x 4 = 86,400; with 60 x 21,600 = 1,296,000, and 4 x 15 = 60.
The only thing linking time, distance and angle and the number 60 is the exacting length of each of them. A second of time is about the length between one heartbeat and the next; an arc-second is a certain section of a part of a circle; and a nautical mile has 1852 metres in it, or 6076 feet. It is possible that our ancients had a nice 6060 feet as the nautical mile, which would certainly affect any kind of measure of Earth itself as the nautical mile is based upon arc-seconds of angle of Earth. But our feet are based upon there being 12 inches, whereas a slight variation of this inch may have given over a more exacting 6000 to the nautical mile.
Coming from these measures, allow me to open up The Great Pyramid into its observational parts that show us our ancients knew more than we give them credit for. I am not going to speculate upon the pyramid's operations for its internal spaces except to show that the main chambers and intersection of its descending and ascending passages are essentially placed; so too its half height which extends to its complete height; and its perimeter which defines Earth's near-exact size; also too that the position of the entrance feature with its forms and especially its two smaller courses running throughout the pyramid were instrumental in its plan.
For the height, the association is based upon a factor of the square root of 3 which also has its own hierarchy of number. The reciprocal of this square root is 0.57735, and times by 10,000 = the pyramid's height of 5773.5”. Squared = 0.3333repeat; squared again = 0.1111repeat; and squared once more = 0.0123456790123456790repeat. This last figure is noticeable for missing the 8. Including the zero, it is a number of nine figures repeating, and may have a further relevance according to simple number play which is beyond the scope of this presentation to include.
Having the height, it has been determined that a ratio of 2 : pi gives a length of the pyramid's side at 9,068.997”, which is a very good measure for the pyramid according to various surveys. For the height and base, surveys tried to find a Royal Cubit of length that is prevalent throughout, and most determinations have found that about 20.62” is this length, such that the height would be 280 RC high, and the base about 440 RC long. Using this within the King Chamber exhibits a size of 10 RC x 20 RC, with half the diagonal being the height of the chamber. I propose that the RC is actually 20.571428571428repeat for its exact figure, and due to particular amounts that unfold.
20.571428 comes from 360/5 – 360/7, or 720/35. Having such a figure now means the King Chamber is 205.71428” x 411.428571”, with the diagonal of 459.9911”. Half this diagonal is the height of the chamber. Using these figures defines a complete diagonal through the chamber of 514.285714”, which is a factor of 360/7 or 51.4285714.
William Matthew Flinders Petrie conducted an extensive survey of the pyramid in the late part of the nineteenth century, and his measures of the King's Chamber found a variance of 205.97” - 206.43” wide, and 411.88” - 412.78” long, with a height of approximately 232.675”, depending on how one estimates his survey notes. The chamber's complete diagonal would be approximately 516.4”, again depending on how one estimates his survey notes. Given the great length of time and settling of stone in the pyramid, it is possible that my figures were the true measures of the chamber, and due to our ancients exactly knowing the properties of a circle and angles.
The positions of the King and Queen Chambers have a further importance to the plan of the pyramid where their centres are a certain measure apart from each other. Using Petrie's survey notes, he defines them as being approximately 433.37” apart while it is possible that they were a more exacting 433.333repeat apart. I have used this figure towards the greater observations incorporated within the pyramid due to the nature of its plan. While I acknowledge that it is because of whole numbers and measures being found from this number, I also accept that the slight variation might adjust further measures by a slight amount. I will indicate what these adjustments would be when the need arises.
In trying to understand what the pyramid was planned from, many investigators have speculated that there is an astronomical association which may be found within the angles and directions of the passages and shafts. It has been proposed that the passages and shafts aim at certain locations where certain stars were involved, and these were quite important to the Ancient Egyptians and therefore became a basis for the pyramid's plan. In feeling that this was true, I took a different approach to the idea and used not just what the passages and shafts may have aimed at, but placed the entire pyramid within an astronomical scene. This scene is the expanse of the cosmos as viewed from the pyramid, portrayed in Mercator Projection and centred upon two axes of the pyramid: the centre axis; and the middle of the two small courses running through the entrance feature, being the 20th and 21st. I guess it is best to show this scene and then describe it.
The view is of the pyramid seen from north to south, overlaid to the cosmos with the southern meridian in the centre and the Sun rising in the east a few days before an Equinox. The scale is based upon the measure between the King and Queen Chambers of 433.333”, and according to the cosmos, this measure is 10º longitude. As such, north lays on both the left and right extremes of the scene, giving a horizontal measure of 15,600”. The horizon line is based upon the join between the 20th and 21st courses which runs through a specific part of the entrance feature, mainly the bottom of the curve between the two main humps, as seen below.
The overlay image shows the red line of the ecliptic and the blue line of the celestial equator, and they may be depicted as the humps in the entrance feature, such is their similarities. Because of the pyramid's location, the celestial equator is very near to 60º above the horizon, and possibly due to refraction, seemingly appears as exactly 60º. What is also noticeable in the feature is the pyramid shape in the bottom left corner, and the differing levels linking these three forms which encompasses the certain message being given. When this article fully gives the findings about the pyramid and its plan, this certain message is better understood.
The celestial scene of the overlay shows the year 11,875 BCE as given by the astronomy program, Stellarium, in the constellations that the Egyptians knew of. This is an essential moment in time, being the moment when Earth's tilt interacts with Precession and shows the stars at their lowest position in the sky. From the pyramid's location, this shows the star Sirius crossing the southern meridian at just 2º 20' 13" above the horizon. For the pyramid and this celestial scene, Sirius actually reaches the floor of the Queen Chamber when it crosses the southern meridian and central axis of the chamber. What is also noticeable is the location of Canopus: within the Subterranean Chamber.
If we change the time to the maximum Precessional moment in 627 CE, we have the next image.
Sirius has now reached its maximum height in the sky as seen from the pyramid, and as it crosses the southern meridian/central axis, Sirius occupies the exact half height of the pyramid. For Canopus, it crosses through the Queen Chamber within the topmost course. These celestial scenes work when they are portrayed in Mercator Projection only.
The following image shows the location of the Sun at one hour before sunrise on the winter solstice, positioned within the intersection of descending and ascending passages. No matter which year is selected, the Sun will always have the same location at this time of the year.
Thus far, I have summarised the findings given in Opus Mundialis Rostau – which goes into greater detail about these conclusions. Allow me to add another chapter that certainly brings together what the pyramid was planned from, and also creates further questions that will change the way we view the accomplishments of our ancient ancestors.
In keeping with scale, the following image is presented.
Once again a Mercator Projection is used, this time of Earth itself, with the pyramid's 'horizon line' running through the entrance feature aligned to Earth's equator, and the central axis aligned to the pyramid's longitude location.
The verifications for this overlay are threefold: the pyramid's base rests on Earth's latitude where Sirius is at zenith in 627 CE; the corners of the base occupy locations which reflect measures from the pyramid to its exact opposite global point in relation to phi, or 1.61803399; and taking the base size of the pyramid and the socket levels, we find a further scale incorporated. This scale relies on a value of 43,333.333 : 1, which can be expressed by the following:
Using the complete base perimeter as found by Petrie, the measure is 36,275.2"; taking this down to the average depth of the sockets, the measure is 36,503.7". Using the scale has the nautical mile measures of 21,569.0903 and 21,694.544, where certainly a value of 21,600 is found between the base and the average socket depth. This is simple math, and expresses certain scales and measures with their basis in the distance between the axis of the King and Queen Chambers. As mentioned previously, I adjusted this measure by 0.04”, which would have just a slight difference in these measures and the scale used, but still define 21,600 nautical miles within.
As for phi, which has a ratio of measure upon a straight line where the line is split into two lengths, with the shorter length being a measure of 1 unit, and the longer measure being phi units; then the longer measure being 1 unit and the complete line being phi units, we can measure from the pyramid to its antipodean point and divide this measure likewise with phi. Going south east and south west from the pyramid gives the corners of the pyramid when overlaid to Earth. Phi is an amazing measure, and also called the Golden Ratio.
These exacting verifications are true and correct and can be found through the programs Stellarium and Google Earth, and using information about Precession, Sirius and Canopus, and the correct celestial and global maps in conjunction with a perfectly sized model of the pyramid.
Going back to the entrance feature, the certain message being depicted certainly incorporates the pyramid itself, depicted in the lower left corner along the lowest level of the levels joining all the forms. What this message might be saying is based upon Precession with the lower and upper levels the extent of movement of stars against the horizon as seen from the pyramid's location. Considering the position of Sirius at its lowest moment reaches the Queen Chamber floor, the pyramid is firstly planned from this Precessional moment and is thus connected pictorially in the feature upon the lowest level. The highest Precessional moment has Sirius reaching the exact half height of the pyramid, and Canopus passing through the highest course of blocks in the Queen Chamber, and thus is depicted by the highest level in the feature. When we consider the time when the pyramid was constructed by Khufu in the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, this might very well be the curve between the two mounds...otherwise the plan comes from an earlier time and according to the cycle of Precession, is still represented by that curve.
I have speculated that the two mounds reflect the celestial equator and the ecliptic lines of the cosmos as viewed from the pyramid, but they may also be other: when the motions of Sirius and Canopus are put together in their lowest and highest positions according to Precession, they appear as the following.
Using the level of the Subterranean Chamber, it is interesting seeing the curves these two stars make during 627 CE, the highest moment, which may be a better comparison for the entrance feature's mounds...but certainly this may just be a case of seeing something that might not be the real comparison. What is interesting though is Khufu's band of priests and followers: they continued their rites and rituals for Khufu up until about 640 CE, and certainly far longer than was given to any other Pharaoh from ancient Egypt. They disbanded at that time, and it may be due to the Precessional period having been verified and observed.
One further point of interest in all this concerns the left corner of the pyramid overlaid to Earth and the alignment of Sirius' zenith latitude. The latitude passes right through Lake Titicaca in Peru, and the corner is not far from this location. The legend and constructions in this area defines a white skinned, white haired man named Virracocha who came out of the ocean and taught the people a new way of life that included farming, animal husbandry, building techniques, and astronomy besides many other things. This was said to have occurred in the dim past before about 1800 BCE, and excavations in this area somewhat confirms that there was inhabitation for a great period of time corresponding to this year and before then.
I stress that the corners of the overlaid pyramid upon Earth are an exact scale of the pyramid upon a Mercator Projection of Earth as a two dimensional map, not only reflecting Sirius' zenith path but also incorporating phi.
When this is considered, it is also interesting that the Australian Aborigines have legends about white skinned people who visited their lands in the dim past, although they did not take on such instructions as those in South America. This other corner is also specific with its location but thus far it has been determined to reflect geometry rather than any kind of construction.
If these two global locations are paramount to the plan of the pyramid, then its apex must also be of relevance, and it is interesting about the legend of Atlantis, especially considering it arose in Egypt and was given to Plato's uncle, Strabo, to pass onto Plato, where he wrote it down and verified its origin as a tale that was seemingly suggested as being true and real. For where the apex of the pyramid rests according to being overlaid to Earth, this might be the last indication of something that is also part of the pyramid's plan: the origin of a lost culture. For all we know about Atlantis, it resided beyond the Pillars of Hercules or the entrance into the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, and yet we have no real idea where that may have been...although the shafts of the pyramid may be a whole other layer of meaning.
Certainly they aim at and intersect upon specific stars when the right moment is chosen in 11,875 BCE, as shown in the first overlay image in this analysis; but they may also be relevant to Earth. The southern shaft from the Queen Chamber ends at Mount Kailash, which is well regarded as being a sacred site; while its northern shaft ends just beyond the Pillars of Hercules. This may be the ancient site of Atlantis; but once again, this is pure speculation.
Coming to the end of this analysis, we are faced with the implausibility of our ancient ancestors being able to not just construct such as the pyramid, but having the knowledge from which to construct it which certainly involves understandings of astronomy, geometry, the dimensions and shape of Earth and its continents, and incorporating various exacting measures involving time, distance and angle, all used in the pyramid's plan against both the cosmos and Earth.
What we do know is the information that has come down to us through time does not at all indicate such specific understandings by the ancient Egyptians, let alone any other ancient culture, and yet these findings are true and correct. We also know that much information was collected and deposited into the great library of Alexandria, which was twice breached and most of its contents destroyed, so we have no idea at all what it might have contained...if such knowledge was within it at all. We do know the priests of Egypt did keep certain knowledge within their own temples, so it may be possible some things did not go anywhere else; but once again, we have the pyramid defining things that have never been revealed before.
In ending, I have to mention the legend of why the pyramid was built in the first place.
A King had a dream about a great catastrophe descending upon the land and wanted to construct something that held the knowledge that was known at the time. It was supposed to last through the catastrophe, and give over this knowledge to any survivors that might understand what was known. The Great Pyramid was supposed to have been constructed because of this dream.
What we cannot be sure of is if the pyramid is truly an original work, or if it was planned far earlier than we can imagine....by someone else.
(Edit: "the pyramid's base rests on Earth's latitude where Sirius is at zenith in 627 CE;
Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 22-Dec-16 00:36 by drew.